"sweetened, flavored alcoholic liquor," 1729, from French liqueur "liquor, liquid," from Old French licor "liquid." See liquor, which is the same word but borrowed earlier.
1540s, "a drink, liquor," later "big or hearty drink of liquor" (1620s), of unknown origin.
late 13c. (in a biblical context), "strong liquor;" mid-14c., "liquor made from the juice of fruits," from Old French cidre, cire "pear or apple cider" (12c., Modern French cidre), variant of cisdre, from Late Latin sicera, Vulgate rendition of Hebrew shekhar, a word used for any strong drink (translated in Old English as beor, taken untranslated in Septuagint Greek as sikera), related to Arabic sakar "strong drink," sakira "was drunk."
Meaning gradually narrowed in English to mean exclusively "fermented drink made from apples," though this sense also was in Old French. Later applied to any expressed juice of apples, either before or after fermentation (19c.). The former is distinguished as sweet cider, the latter as hard cider.
Japanese fermented liquor made from rice, 1680s, from Japanese sake, literally "alcohol."
"resembling or of the nature of a hard tumor," 1560s, from French scirrheux (16c., Modern French squirreux), from Modern Latin scirrhosus, from Latin scirros "a hard swelling, tumor," from Greek skirrhos "hard tumor, callus; hard, scrubby ground," related to skiros (adj.) "hard;" a word of unknown origin. Scirrhus "a hard tumor" is attested from c. 1600.
"hard coat of the eyeball," 1886, medical Latin, from Greek sklēra (menix) "the hard (membrane)," fem. of sklēros "hard" (see sclero-).
1808, "act of snorting," from snort (v.). Meaning "a drink of liquor" (especially whiskey) is from 1889.