Etymology
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cunctator (n.)

"one who delays or lingers," 1650s, from Latin, agent noun from cunctari "to be slow, hesitate, delay action," from PIE *konk- "to hang" (source also of Hittite kank- "to hang, weigh," Sanskrit sankate "is afraid, fears," Gothic hahan "to leave in uncertainty," Old English hon "to hang," Old Norse hengja "to hang, suspend;" see hang (v.)). In Roman history the famous surname of dictator Q. Fabius Maximus. Related: Cunctation "delay," 1580s.

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hinge (n.)

late 14c., "movable joint of a gate or door," not found in Old English, cognate with Middle Dutch henghe "hook, handle," Middle Low German henge "hinge," from Proto-Germanic *hanhan (transitive), *hangen (intransitive), from PIE *konk- "to hang" (see hang (v.)). The notion is the thing from which a door hangs. Figurative sense of "that on which events, etc., turn" is from c.1600. Stamp-collecting sense is from 1883.

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propensity (n.)

1560s, "disposition to favor;" 1610s, "a bent of mind, natural or acquired," with -ty + obsolete adjective propense "inclined, prone" (1520s), from Latin propensus, past participle of propendere "incline to, hang forward, hang down, weigh over," from pro "forward" (see pro-) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").

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hangnail (n.)

also hang-nail, "sore strip of partially detached flesh at the side of a nail of the finger or toe," probably a 17c. or earlier folk etymology and sense alteration (as if from hang (v.) + (finger) nail) of Middle English agnail, angnail "a corn on the foot," from Old English agnail, angnail. The literal sense probably is "painful spike" (in the flesh). The first element would be Proto-Germanic *ang- "compressed, hard, painful" (from PIE root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful"). The second element is Old English nægl "spike" (see nail (n.)).

Compare Old English angnes "anxiety, trouble, pain, fear;" angset "eruption, pustule." OED also compares Latin clavus, which "was both a nail (of iron, etc.) and a corn on the foot." Similar compounding in Old High German ungnagel, Frisian ongneil.

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depend (v.)

mid-15c., "to be attached to as a condition or cause, be a conditional effect or result," a figurative use, also literal, "to hang, be sustained by being attached to something above;" from Old French dependre, literally "to hang from, hang down," and directly from Latin dependere "to hang from, hang down; be dependent on, be derived," from de "from, down" (see de-) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").

From c. 1500 as "to rely, rest in full confidence or belief;" from 1540s as "be sustained by, be dependent (on)." Related: Depended; depending.

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append (v.)

late 14c., appenden, "to belong to as a possession or right," from Old French apendre (13c.) "belong, be dependent (on); attach (oneself) to; hang, hang up," and directly from Latin appendere "cause to hang (from something); weigh out," from ad "to" (see ad-) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weight; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").

The meaning "to hang on, attach as a pendant" is by 1640s; that of "attach as an appendix" is recorded by 1843. OED says the original word was obsolete by c. 1500, and these later transitive senses thus represent a reborrowing from Latin or French. Related: Appended; appending.

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prepend (v.)

"ponder, consider," 1560s, from pre- "before" + Latin pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). Related: Prepended; prepending.

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pend (v.)

c. 1500, "to depend, to hang," from French pendre, from Latin pendere "to hang, cause to hang" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). In some cases short for depend, but this often was 'pend, aware of its origin. Middle English also had penden "pertain (to), belong," short for append. For the figurative or extended sense "to hang as in a balance, await settlement," see pending.

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suspend (v.)

c. 1300, suspenden, "to bar or exclude temporarily from some function or privilege;" also "to set aside (a law, etc.)" and in a general sense of "cause to cease for a time," from Old French sospendre "remove from office; hang up" (12c.), or directly from Latin suspendere "to hang up, kill by hanging; make uncertain, render doubtful; stay, stop, interrupt, set aside temporarily," from assimilated form of sub "up from under" (see sub-) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").

In English, the literal sense of "to cause to hang by a support from above" is recorded from mid-15c. Related: Suspended; suspending.

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pendular (adj.)

"of or relating to a pendulum," 1734, from French pendulaire, from pendule, from pendre "to hang," from Latin pendere "to hang," from PIE *(s)pend-, extended form of root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin."

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