Etymology
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weekend (n.)
also week-end, 1630s, from week + end (n.). Originally a northern word (referring to the period from Saturday noon to Monday morning); it became general after 1878. As an adjective, "only on weekends," it is recorded from 1935. Long weekend attested from 1900; in reference to Great Britain in the period between the world wars, 1944.
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Queen Anne 

by 1863 in reference an architectural and design style (notable for commodious and dignified buildings) characteristic of the time of Queen Anne of Great Britain and Ireland, who reigned 1702-14. An imitation of it had a vogue in U.S., especially for suburban cottages, from c. 1878. The Queen Anne's lace of the white, feathery blossoms is so called by 1893 in American English.

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insular (adj.)
1610s, "of or pertaining to an island," from Late Latin insularis "of or belonging to an island," from Latin insula "island" (see isle). Metaphoric sense "narrow, prejudiced" is from 1775, from notion of being isolated and cut off from intercourse with other nations or people (an image that naturally suggested itself in Great Britain). The earlier adjective in the literal sense was insulan (mid-15c.), from Latin insulanus.
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ordnance (n.)

"cannon and great guns collectively, artillery," 1540s, an old, clipped form of ordinance (q.v.) which word was attested from late 14c. in the sense of "military materials, provisions of war;" a sense now obsolete but which led to the specialized meanings "engines for discharging missiles" (early 15c.) and "branch of the military concerned with stores and materials" (late 15c.). The shorter word was established in these distinct senses by 17c.

The Ordnance survey (1833), an official geographical survey of Great Britain and Ireland, was undertaken by the government under the direction of the Master-General of the Ordnance (the natural choice, gunners being thoroughly trained in surveying ranges and distances).

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Hanoverian (adj.)
"pertaining to or connected with the former electorate of Hanover in northern Germany, from the German city of Hanover (German Hannover), literally "on the high ridge," from Middle Low German hoch "high" + over, cognate with Old English ofer "flat-topped ridge." The modern royal family of Great Britain is descended from Electoress Sophia of Hannover, grand-daughter of James I of England, whose heirs received the British crown in 1701 (nearer heirs being set aside as Roman Catholics). The first was George I. They were joint rulers of Britain and Hannover until the accession of Victoria (1837) who was excluded from Hannover by Salic Law. Hanover in English also was a euphemism for "Hell."
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assiento (n.)
1714, "contract between the King of Spain and another power," especially that made at the Peace of Utrecht, 1713, with Great Britain for furnishing African slaves to the Spanish colonies in the Americas (abrogated in 1750), from Spanish asiento, formerly assiento "a compact or treaty; a seat in court, a seat," from asentar/assentar "to adjust, settle, establish," literally "to place on a seat," from a sentar, from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + sedens, present participle of sedere "to sit," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit."
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fosse (n.)
"ditch, trench," early 14c. (late 13c. in place names), from Old French fosse "ditch, grave, dungeon" (12c.), from Latin fossa "ditch, trench, furrow," in full fossa terra, literally "dug earth," from fem. past participle of fodere "to dig" (see fossil). The Fosse-way (early 12c.), one of the four great Roman roads of Britain, probably was so named from the ditch on either side of it.
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prudential (adj.)

"involving or characterized by prudence," mid-15c., prudencial, from Medieval Latin prudentialis, from Latin prudentia "a foreseeing, foresight" (see prudence). Related: Prudentially.

Prudential, the U.S. insurance company, dates to the 1870s; its logo featuring the Rock of Gibraltar dates from c. 1900 and was widely known 20c. The Prudential of Great Britain is a different company, founded 1848 to provide loans to professional and working people, noted for its door-to-door agents ("the Man from the Pru").

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Boer (n.)
"Dutch colonist in South Africa," 1824, from Dutch boer "farmer," from Middle Dutch, cognate with Old English gebur "dweller, farmer, peasant," and thus related to bower, German Bauer, and the final syllable of neighbor; from PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow."

The Boer War (1899-1902), in which Great Britain defeated the South African Republic of Transvaal and Orange Free State, was technically the Second Boer War, there having been a brief preview 1880-1881.
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GOP 
also G.O.P., "U.S. Republican Party," 1884, an abbreviation of Grand Old Party. The Republicans were so called from 1876; the Democratic Party also was referred to occasionally as grand old party, with lower-case letters, in 1870s-80s when the Republicans (formed in 1854) still were considered new and radical. The designation grand old ______ is from about 1850; in Great Britain, Lord Palmerston was known as the Grand Old Man by 1880, and it was abbreviated to G.O.M. by 1882.
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