glucose (n.)
name of a group of sugars (in commercial use, "sugar-syrup from starch"), 1840, from French glucose (1838), said to have been coined by French professor Eugène Melchior Péligot (1811-1890) from Greek gleukos "must, sweet wine," related to glykys "sweet" (see gluco-). It first was obtained from grape sugar. Related: Glucosic.
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dregs (n.)

"the sediment of liquors, foreign matter that subsides to the bottom of a vessel containing liquors," c. 1300 (implied in surname Dryngedregges), from Old Norse dregg "sediment," from Proto-Germanic *drag- (source also of Old High German trestir, German Trester "grape-skins, husks"), from PIE *dher- (1) "to make muddy."

Replaced Old English cognate dræst, dærst "dregs, lees." Figurative use for "useless residue, the most worthless part of anything" is from 1530s.

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Chardonnay (n.)

type of dry white wine, 1907, from French chardonnay, originally the type of grape used to make the wine, supposedly named for the town of Chardonnay, Saône-et-Loire, in eastern France. The name is said to be from Latin Cardonnacum. The wine was enormously popular worldwide in 1990s and early 2000s and the word even came to be used as a girl's name.

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climber (n.)

early 15c., "one who climbs," agent noun from climb (v.). Botanical meaning "a plant that rises by attaching itself to some support" is from 1630s.

Climbing plants are distinguished as stem-climbers, which like the hop, wind upward around an upright support, and as tendril-climbers, which, like the grape-vine, cling to adjacent objects by slender coiling tendrils. Other plants climb also by means of retrorse bristles or spines, or by means of rootlets. [Century Dictionary]
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currant (n.)

c. 1500, "very small kind of seedless blackish raisin or dried grape, used in cookery and confections," a shortening of raysyn of Curans (late 14c.) "raisins of Corinth," with the -s- mistaken for a plural inflection. From Anglo-French reisin de Corauntz. The raisins were exported from southern Greece.

In 1570s the word was applied to the small round red or black berry of an unrelated Northern European plant (genus Ribes), then lately introduced in England, on its resemblance to the raisins. It later was applied to plants having similar fruit in America and Australia.

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bin (n.)
"enclosed receptacle for some commodity," Old English binne "basket, manger, crib," a word of uncertain origin. Probably from Gaulish, from Old Celtic *benna, and akin to Welsh benn "a cart," especially one with a woven wicker body. The same Celtic word seems to be preserved in Italian benna "dung cart," French benne "grape-gatherer's creel," Dutch benne "large basket," all of which are from Late Latin benna "cart," Medieval Latin benna "basket." Some linguists think there was a Germanic form parallel to the Celtic one.
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vine (n.)

c. 1300, "plant which bears the grapes from which wine is made," from Old French vigne "vine, vineyard" (12c.), from Latin vinea "vine, vineyard," from vinum "wine," from PIE *win-o- "wine," an Italic noun related to words for "wine" in Greek, Armenian, Hittite, and non-Indo-European Georgian and West Semitic (Hebrew yayin, Ethiopian wayn); probably ultimately from a lost Mediterranean language word *w(o)in- "wine."

From late 14c. in reference to any plant with a long slender stem that trails or winds around. The European grape vine was imported to California via Mexico by priests in 1564.

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mitrailleuse (n.)

kind of machine gun designed to discharge a concentrated rapid fire of small projectiles from a group of rifled barrels, 1870, from French mitrailleuse (19c.), from French mitraille "small missile," especially grape, canister, etc., fired at close quarters (14c.), originally "small coins," hence "old iron, scrap iron," then "grapeshot;" a diminutive of mite "a small coin" (see mite (n.2)). "For sense development it should be borne in mind that orig. guns used to be loaded with scrap iron" [Klein]. Especially of a type of gun introduced in the French army in 1868 and first used in the Franco-Prussian War.

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sargasso (n.)

"seaweed," 1590s, from Portuguese sargasso "seaweed," which is perhaps from sarga, a type of grape (on this theory, the sea plant was so called from its berry-like air sacs; it also is known as grapeweed), or from Latin sargus, a kind of fish found in the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic, from Greek sargos, name of a sea-fish that appears in schools, a word of uncertain origin.

The name Sargasso Sea is attested by 1819 for the large section of the Atlantic in the interior of the great loop of the Gulf Stream, where this sort of weed abounds and could impede sailing ships. Hence figurative for any sort of stagnant mass.

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concord (n.)

early 14c., "agreement between persons, union in opinions or sentiment, state of mutual friendship, amiability," from Old French concorde (12c.) "concord, harmony, agreement, treaty," from Latin concordia "agreement, union," from concors (genitive concordis) "of the same mind," literally "hearts together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + cor (genitive cordis) "heart," from PIE root *kerd- "heart." Related: Concordial.

Meaning "a compact or agreement" is from late 15c. The village in Massachusetts (site of one of the opening battles of the Revolutionary War, April 19, 1775) was named in 1635, perhaps in reference to the peaceful dealings between the settlers and the local native tribes. The capital of New Hampshire was renamed for the Massachusetts town in 1763 (formerly it had been Pennycook, from a mangling of  a native Algonquian word meaning "descent").

By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
   Their flag to April’s breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood
   And fired the shot heard round the world.  
[Emerson, from "Concord Hymn"]

The Concord grape was so called by 1853, from the Massachusetts town, where it was bred for the local climate and promoted by farmer Ephraim Wales Bull. It is mentioned, but not named in the "New England Farmer" of Oct. 26, 1850, in its acknowledgements:

From E. W. Bull, Concord, a lot of fine seedling grapes, which he produced by a cross of the Catawba with a native grape. It is very good, and partakes of the nature of its parents, having some of the vinous flavor of the Catawba, and a little of the acid peculiar to our native fruit.  
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