early 13c., "an aperture or opening," from open (adj.). Sense of "an open or clear space" is by 1796. The open "open country" is from 1620s; as "open air" from 1875. Meaning "public knowledge" (especially in out in the open) is from 1942, but compare Middle English in open (late 14c.) "manifestly, publicly." The sense of "an open competition" is from 1926, originally in a golf context.
late 14c., "beast that pushes with the head;" early 15c., "one who puts or places," agent noun from put (v.). Meaning "one who throws (a stone or other heavy weight)" is by 1820. As a type of golf club with a stiff and comparatively short staff, used when the ball lies a short distance from the hole, by 1743; see putt (v.).
"one who or that which drives" in various senses, late 14c. (late 13c. as a surname); agent noun from drive (v.). Earliest sense is "herdsman, drover, one who drives livestock." From mid-15c. as "one who drives a vehicle." In U.S., "overseer of a gang of slaves," by 1796. Meaning "golf club for hitting great distances" is by 1892. Driver's seat is attested by 1867; figurative use by 1954.
c. 1300, "a fragment," from Old French escliz "splinter, fragment" (Modern French éclisse), a back-formation from esclicier "to splinter, shatter, smash," from Frankish *slitan "to split" or some other Germanic source (compare Old High German slihhan; see slit (v.)). Meaning "piece cut from something" emerged early 15c. Meaning "a slicing stroke" (in golf, tennis) is recorded from 1886. Slice of life (1895) translates French tranche de la vie, a term from French Naturalist literature.
1758, originally Scottish, "seat, bench," a word of uncertain origin, possibly a variant of banker "bench" (1670s; see bank (n.2)); or possibly from a Scandinavian source (compare Old Swedish bunke "boards used to protect the cargo of a ship"). The meaning "receptacle for coal aboard a ship" is from 1839. In reference to sand-holes on golf courses, by 1824, from the extended sense "earthen seat" (1805). The meaning "dug-out fortification" probably is from World War I.
1530s, "standing place, station," probably from French stance "resting place, harbor" (16c.), from Vulgar Latin *stantia "place, abode" (also source of Italian stanza "stopping place, station, stanza," Spanish stancia "a dwelling"), from Latin stans (genitive stantis), present participle of stare "to stand" (from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm"). Sense of "position of the feet" (in golf, etc.) is first recorded 1897; figurative sense of "point of view" is recorded from 1956. The sense of the French word has since narrowed.
c. 1610s, "legal quibbling, sophistry, mean or petty tricks," from French chicanerie "trickery," from chicaner "to pettifog, quibble" (15c.), which is of unknown origin, perhaps from Middle Low German schikken "to arrange, bring about," or from the name of a golf-like game once played in Languedoc. Also compare French chic "small, little," as a noun "a small piece; finesse, subtlety." Thornton's "American Glossary" has shecoonery (1845), which it describes as probably a corruption of chicanery.
surname, from Gaelic Maolagan, Old Irish Maelecan, a double diminutive of mael "bald," hence "the little bald (or shaven) one," probably often a reference to a monk or disciple. As "stew made with whatever's available" (1904) it is hobo slang, probably from the proper name. The golf sense of "extra stroke after a poor shot" (1949) is sometimes said to be from the name of a Canadian golfer in the 1920s whose friends gave him an extra shot in gratitude for driving them over rough roads to their weekly foursome at St. Lambert Country Club near Montreal.
"a winning of all tricks in a card game," 1660s, earlier the name of a card game (also called ruff), 1620s, used especially in whist, of obscure origin. Grand slam in bridge is recorded by 1892; earlier in related card games by 1800; figurative sense of "complete success" is attested by 1920; the baseball sense of "home run with the bases loaded" is by 1935, probably a natural extension from the card game sense, with suggestion of slam (n.1). It also was the name of a brand of golf clubs in the 1920s and '30s.
"next in order or rank after the eighteenth; the ordinal numeral corresponding to nineteen; being one of nineteen equal parts into which a whole is regarded as divided;" late 14c., nyntenthe; from nineteen + -th (1).
It is a replacement or modification (by influence of nineteen) of nigonteoþa, nyenteoþe (c. 1300), from Old English nigon-teoða, which is cognate with Old Frisian niuguntinda, Dutch negentiende, Old High German niuntazehanto, German neunzehnte, Old Norse nitjandi, Danish nittende. Nineteenth hole "bar-room in a golf clubhouse" is attested from 1901.