early 15c., manifestacioun, "action of disclosing what is secret, obscure, or unseen; exhibition, demonstration," from Late Latin manifestationem (nominative manifestatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin manifestare "to discover, disclose, betray" (see manifest (adj.)). Meaning "an object, action, or presence by which something is made manifest" is from 1785. The spiritualism sense of "phenomena by which the presence of a spirit or ghost is supposed to be rendered perceptible" is attested by 1853.
a word used in English in various sense from late 19c. ("breath;" "spirit;" "soul;" "a breathing;" also as a technical term), from Greek pneuma "a blowing, a wind, blast; breeze; influence; breathed air, breath; odor, scent; spirit of a person; inspiration, a spirit, ghost," from pnein "to blow, to breathe," from PIE root *pneu- "to breathe," of imitative origin (compare Greek pnoe "breath," pnoia "breathing;" Old English fnora "sneezing," fnæran "to snort").
mid-14c., "one who consoles or supports in distress, anger, etc." (originally in religious use, with capital C-, "the Holy Ghost"), from Anglo-French confortour (Old French conforteor) "helper, adviser, supporter," from Vulgar Latin *confortatorem, agent noun from Late Latin confortare "to strengthen much" (see comfort (v.)). As a kind of knitted, crocheted scarf fit for tying around the neck in cold weather, from 1817; as a kind of quilted coverlet, from 1832.
Desolate winds that cry over the wandering sea;
Desolate winds that hover in the flaming West;
Desolate winds that beat the doors of Heaven, and beat
The doors of Hell and blow there many a whimpering ghost;
O heart the winds have shaken, the unappeasable host
Is comelier than candles at Mother Mary's feet.
[W.B. Yeats, "The Unappeasable Host," 1899]
a ghost word printed in the 1934 "Webster's New International Dictionary" and defined as a noun used by physicists and chemists, meaning "density." In sorting out and separating abbreviations from words in preparing the dictionary's second edition, a card marked "D or d" meaning "density" somehow migrated from the "abbreviations" stack to the "words" stack. The "D or d" entry ended up being typeset as a word, dord, and defined as a synonym for density. The mistake was discovered in 1939.
mid-13c., "something heavy; heaviness," from heavy (adj.). Theatrical sense of "villain" is 1880, short for heavy villain (1843), heavy leading man (1849) or similar phrases.
A "heavy business man," he who performs such parts as Ferardo in the Wife, the Ghost in Hamlet, and Malec, Edmund, Banquo, Buckingham and the principal villains of the drama, [will command at present] from $15 to $20 [per week]. ["The Amateur, or Guide to the Stage," Philadelphia, 1851]
early 15c., "supernatural appearance or manifestation," from Anglo-French aparicion, Old French aparicion, aparoison (15c.), used in reference to the Epiphany (the revealing of the Christ child to the Wise Men), from Late Latin apparitionem (nominative apparitio) "an appearance," also "attendants," in classical Latin "service; servants," noun of action from past-participle stem of apparere "appear" (see appear). Meaning "ghost" first recorded c. 1600; the sense differentiation between appearance and apparition is that the latter tends to be unexpected or startling. Related: Apparitional.
late 14c., "member of the German race, person of German birth or ancestry," from Dutch (adj.) + man (n.). From 1590s in narrowed sense of "inhabitant of Holland or the Netherlands," though "Century Dictionary" as late as 1897 reports it "in the U.S. often locally applied to Germans, and sometimes to Scandinavians" (other 19c. sources also include Baltics).
From 1650s in nautical use as "Dutch ship." References to the ghost ship called the Flying Dutchman seem to begin late 18c. (see flying).