1620s, auf, oph (modern form from 1630s; oafish is from 1610s), "a changeling; a foolish or otherwise defective child left by the fairies in place of another carried off," from a Scandinavian source such as Norwegian alfr "silly person," in Old Norse "elf" (see elf). Hence, "a misbegotten, deformed idiot, a simpleton" (17c.). Until recently, some dictionaries still gave the plural as oaves.
1868, "appointed or nominated but not yet installed," past-participle adjective from designate (v.). The baseball designated hitter "substitute named before the start of a game to hit for the pitcher" was introduced in the American League in 1973; it soon gave wide figurative extension to designated, as in designated driver (by 1985).
a model solar-system machinery constructed to represent the motions of the planets in their orbits, 1713, invented c. 1704 by English clockmaker George Graham (1673-1751) and constructed by instrument maker John Rowley. Graham gave a copy to his patron, Charles Boyle (1674-1731), 4th Earl of Orrery (Cork) and named it in his honor.
"priest, chaplain," used in reference to priests in Spain, Italy, and Mexico and South America, or the southwest of the U.S., 1580s, from Italian, Spanish, or Portuguese padre, from Latin patrem (nominative pater) "father" (see father (n.)). The title of the regular clergy in those languages. Papar was the name the Norse arriving in Iceland gave to Irish monks whom they found there.
"female singer of popular songs," 1866, from French chanteuse (16c.), fem. agent noun of chanter "to sing" (from PIE root *kan- "to sing"). In Old French, the word was chanteresse, which gave Middle English chaunteresse "nun who sings or leads the singing" (late 14c.). Milton has chauntress, but the word seems to have gone extinct before the 19c. reborrowing.