Etymology
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go south (v.)
"vanish, abscond," 1920s, American English, probably from mid-19c. notion of disappearing south to Mexico or Texas to escape pursuit or responsibility, reinforced by Native American belief (attested in colonial writing mid-18c.) that the soul journeys south after death.
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go through (v.)
"to execute, carry to completion" (a plan, etc., often with with), 1560s; see go (v.) + through (adv.). Meaning "to examine" is 1660s; "to endure, suffer, undergo" is by 1712; "to wear out" (of clothes, etc.) by 1959.
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go together (v.)
1520s, "accompany," see go (v.) + together (adv.). From 1710 as "agree with, harmonize with;" 1899 as "be courting."
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go west (v.)
19c. British idiom for "die, be killed" (popularized during World War I), "probably from thieves' slang, wherein to go west meant to go to Tyburn, hence to be hanged, though the phrase has indubitably been influenced by the setting of the sun in the west" [Partridge]. Compare go south.
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good den 
salutation, Elizabethan corruption of good e'en, itself a contraction of good even "good evening," which is attested from c. 1500, first as gud devon, showing a tendency toward misdivision. See good (adj.) + even (n.).
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Good Friday (n.)
the Friday before Easter, c. 1300, from good (adj.) in Middle English sense of "holy, sacred," especially of holy days or seasons observed by the church; the word also was applied to Christmas and Shrove Tuesday. Good Twelfthe Dai (c. 1500) was Epiphany (the twelfth day after Christmas).
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good morning 
greeting salutation, c. 1400, from good (adj.) + morning. Earlier good morwe (late 14c.), from morrow.
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good will (n.)
Old English godes willan "state of wishing well to another;" see good (adj.) + will (n.). Meaning "cheerful acquiescence" is from c. 1300. In the commercial sense "degree of favor enjoyed through patronage of customers" from 1570s.
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Gordian knot (n.)
1560s, tied by Gordius (Greek Gordios), first king of Phrygia in Asia Minor and father of Midas, who predicted the one to loosen it would rule Asia. Instead, Alexander the Great cut the Gordian knot with his sword; hence the extended sense (1570s in English) "solve a difficult problem in a quick, dramatic way."
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grand mal 
"convulsive epilepsy" (with loss of consciousness), 1842 as a French term in English, from French grand mal, literally "great sickness" (see grand (adj.)). Opposed to petit mal.
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