Etymology
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outlander (n.)

1590s, "a foreigner, a person who is not a native," from outland "foreign land" (see outlandish) + -er (1). Probably on model of Dutch uitlander, German ausländer. In South African English it had a specific sense of "not of Boer birth" (1892) and was a loan-translation of South African Dutch uitlander. Old English utlanda meant "an exile." Middle English sometimes used simply outland for "foreigners," or straungeres outlondes.

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denizen (n.)

early 15c., "a citizen, a dweller, an inhabitant," especially "legally established inhabitant of a city or borough, a citizen as distinguished from a non-resident native or a foreigner," from Anglo-French deinzein, denzein, (Old French deinzein) "one within" (the privileges of a city franchise; opposed to forein "one without"), from deinz "within, inside," from Late Latin deintus, from de- "from" + intus "within" (see ento-).

Historically, an alien admitted to certain rights of citizenship in a country; a naturalized citizen (but ineligible to public office). Formerly also an adjective, "within the city franchise, having certain rights and privileges of citizenship" (late 15c.). Compare foreign.

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rastaquouere (n.)

1883, from French rastaquouère, rastacouère (19c.) "social intruder, upstart" (especially one of exaggerated manners and dress, from a Mediterranean or South American country), thus "dashing but untrustworthy foreigner" [OED].

Short form rasta is attested from 1905. According to French sources, the word is from South American Spanish rastacuero "upstart," from arrastrar "to drag, pull, tow, trail along the ground" + cuero "leather." Arrastrar is said to be from Spanish rastro "rake," from Latin rastrum (see raster), while cuero is from Latin corium (see corium).

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pilgrim (n.)

c. 1200, pilegrim, "a person traveling to a holy place (as a penance or to discharge some vow or religious obligation, or seeking some miracle or spiritual benefit)," also "a traveler" generally, "a wayfarer," from Old French pelerin, peregrin "pilgrim, crusader; foreigner, stranger" (11c., Modern French pèlerin), from Late Latin pelegrinus, a dissimilation of Latin peregrinus "foreigner, stranger, foreign resident" (source of Italian pellegrino, Spanish peregrino, German Pilger), from peregre (adv.) "from abroad," from per- "beyond" + agri, locative case of ager "country, land" (from PIE root *agro- "field").

The change of the first -r- to -l- in most Romance languages is by dissimilation; the -m appears to be a Germanic modification. Pilgrim Fathers "English Separatists who crossed the Atlantic on the Mayflower and founded Plymouth colony in Massachusetts in 1620" is attested by 1799. They sometimes wrote of themselves as Pilgrims from c. 1630, in reference to Hebrews xi.13. Pilgrim in U.S. Western slang for "an original settler" is by 1841, later "a newcomer, 'tenderfoot,'" perhaps originally in reference to the Mormon migrations.

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hospice (n.)

1818, "rest house for travelers," especially the houses of refuge and shelter kept by monks in the passes of the Alps, from French hospice "hospital, almshouse" (Old French ospice "hospice, shelter," also "hospitality," 13c.), from Latin hospitium "hospitable reception, entertainment; hospitality, bonds of hospitality, relationship of guest and host;" also "place of entertainment, lodging, inn, guest-house," from hospes (genitive hospitis) "guest; host," also "a stranger, foreigner" (see host (n.1)).

Sense of "home for the aged and terminally ill " is from 1879; hospice movement first attested 1978.

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Cornwall 

county in the far southwest of England, from Old English Cornwalas (891) "inhabitants of Cornwall," literally "the Corn Welsh," from the original Celtic tribal name *Cornowii (Latinized as Cornovii), literally "peninsula people, the people of the horn," from Celtic kernou "horn," hence "headland," from PIE *ker- (1) "horn; head, uppermost part of the body" (see horn (n.)), in reference to the long "horn" of land on which they live. To this the Anglo-Saxons added the plural of Old English walh "stranger, foreigner," especially if Celtic (see Welsh). The Romans knew it as Cornubia; hence poetic Cornubian.

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barbarism (n.)

mid-15c., "uncivilized or rude nature, ignorance or want of culture," from French barbarisme "barbarism of language" (13c.), from Latin barbarismus, from Greek barbarismos "foreign speech," from barbarizein "to do as a foreigner does," from barbaros (see barbarian

(n.)).

 Only of speech in Greek, Latin, and French; the sense extension to "uncivilized condition" took place in English. It is in English from 1570s as "offense against purity or style of language" (originally the use of foreign words in Latin and Greek); the meaning "an expression or word not in accord with the proper usage of a language" is from 1580s.

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peregrination (n.)

early 15c., peregrinacioun, "a journey, pilgrimage," hence, later, "roaming or wandering about in general," from Old French peregrination "pilgrimage, long absence" (12c.) or directly from Latin peregrinationem (nominative peregrinatio) "a journey, a sojourn abroad," noun of action from past-participle stem of peregrinari "to journey or travel abroad," figuratively "to roam about, wander," from peregrinus "from foreign parts, foreigner," from peregre (adv.) "abroad," properly "from abroad, found outside Roman territory," from per "away" (see per) + agri, locative of ager "field, territory, land, country" (from PIE root *agro- "field"). The earlier English word was peregrinage (mid-14c.).

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Cyrillic 

1842, in reference to the alphabet adopted by Slavic people belonging to the Eastern Church, from St. Cyril, 9c. apostle of the Slavs, who supposedly invented it. The alphabet replaced earlier Glagolitic. The name Cyril is Late Latin Cyrillus, from Greek Kyrillos, literally "lordly, masterful," related to kyrios "lord, master" (see church).

It is believed to have superseded the Glagolitic as being easier both for the copyist to write and for the foreigner to acquire. Some of its signs are modified from the Glagolitic, but those which Greek and Slavic have in common are taken from the Greek. It was brought into general use by St. Cyril's pupil, Clement, first bishop of Bulgaria. The Russian alphabet is a slight modification of it. [Century Dictionary]
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host (n.2)

"a multitude," especially an army organized for war, mid-13c., from Old French ost, host "army" (10c.), from Medieval Latin hostis, in earlier use "a stranger, foreigner," in classical use "an enemy," from PIE root *ghos-ti- "stranger, guest, host."

It replaced Old English here (see harry (v.)), and in turn has been largely superseded by army. The generalized meaning of "large number" is first attested 1610s. The Latin h- was lost in Old French, then restored in Old French and Middle English spelling, and in modern English also in pronunciation. Lord of Hosts translates Hebrew Jehovah Ts'baoth (which appears more than 260 times throughout the Bible) and seems to refer to both heavenly (angelic) and earthly hosts.

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