Etymology
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bulgur (n.)
cereal food, 1934, from Turkish bulghur, bulgar.
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aliment (n.)

"food, nutriment," late 15c., from Latin alimentum "nourishment," in plural, "food, provisions," from alere "to suckle, nourish" (from PIE root *al- (2) "to grow, nourish"). Related: Alimental.

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diet (n.1)

c. 1200, "regular food," from Old French diete (13c.) "diet, pittance, fare," from Medieval Latin dieta "parliamentary assembly," also "a day's work; daily food allowance, food," from Latin diaeta "prescribed way of life," from Greek diaita, originally "way of life, regimen, dwelling," related to diaitasthai "lead one's life," and from diaitan, originally "separate, select" (food and drink), frequentative of *diainysthai "take apart," from dia "apart" (see dia-) + ainysthai "take," from PIE root *ai- (1) "to give, allot."

From late 14c. as "customary way of eating," also "food considered in relation to its quantity and effects," and "a course of food regulated by a physician or by medical rules," often a restriction of food or certain foods; hence to put (someone) on a diet (mid-15c.).  The adjective in the sense of "slimming, having reduced calories" (Diet Coke, etc.) is attested by 1963, originally in American English. 

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boarding (n.)
1530s, "supplying of meals, food and lodging," from board (n.1) in its extended sense of "food" (via notion of "table"). Boarding-school is from 1670s; boarding-house attested from 1728.
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alimentary (adj.)

"pertaining to nutrition," 1610s, from Medieval Latin alimentarius "pertaining to food," from Latin alimentum "nourishment, food," from alere "to nourish, rear, support, maintain" (from PIE root *al- (2) "to grow, nourish").

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malnutrition (n.)

"defect of sustenance from imperfect assimilation of food," 1843, from mal- + nutrition.

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penetrate (v.)

1520s, "to pierce into or through," from Latin penetratus, past participle of penetrare "to put or get into, enter into; cause to go into." This is related to penitus "within, inmost, interior," penetralis "penetrating; innermost;" penus "innermost part of a temple, store of food," penarius "used for storing food;" Penates "household gods."

All are from penus/penoris "food, provisions," from Proto-Italic *penos, from PIE *penos "food" (source also of Lithuanian penėti "to feed"). De Vann writes that "The semantic appurtenance to 'feed' is explained by Stüber as 'what one feeds with' ('food') > 'the place one feeds at' > 'interior, home'."

The figurative senses of "enter and affect deeply, influence, impress" and "gain intellectual or spiritual access" are from 1580s. Related: Penetrated; penetrating.

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malabsorption (n.)

"imperfect absorption (of food, by the body)," 1879, from mal- + absorption.

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bait (n.)
"food put on a hook or trap to attract prey," c. 1300, from Old Norse beita "food, bait," especially for fish, from beita "cause to bite," from Proto-Germanic *baitjan, causative of *bitan, from PIE root *bheid- "to split," with derivatives in Germanic referring to biting. The noun is cognate with Old Norse beit "pasture, pasturage," Old English bat "food." Figurative sense "means of enticement" is from c. 1400.
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munchies (n.)

"food or snack," 1959, plural of munchie "snack eaten to satisfy hunger" (1917), from munch (v.); sense of "craving for food after smoking marijuana" is U.S. stoner slang attested by 1971. Munch (n.) "something to eat" is attested from 1816.

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