Etymology
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antonomasia (n.)

rhetorical substitution of an epithet for a proper name (or vice versa; as in His Holiness for the name of a pope), 1580s, from Latin, from Greek antonomasia, from antonomazein "to name instead, call by a new name," from anti "instead" (see anti-) + onomazein "to name," from onoma "name" (from PIE root *no-men- "name"). Related: Antonomastic.

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Argus 

hundred-eyed giant of Greek mythology, late 14c., from Latin, from Greek Argos, literally "the bright one," from argos "shining, bright" (from PIE root *arg- "to shine; white"). His epithet was Panoptes "all-eyes." After his death, Hera transferred his eyes to the peacock's tail. The name also is used in the figurative sense of "very vigilant person."

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Argo 
name of the ship in which Jason and his 54 heroic companions sought the Fleece in Colchis on the Euxine Sea, in Greek, literally "The Swift," from argos "swift" (adj.), an epithet, literally "shining, bright" (from PIE root *arg- "to shine; white"), "because all swift motion causes a kind of glancing or flickering light" [Liddell & Scott]. Related: Argean.
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blamed (adv.)

"confoundedly" 1833, later also as an adjective (1840), from past participle of blame (v.), as a "euphemistic evasion of the horrible word damn." [Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1848].

This adjective 'blamed' is the virtuous oath by which simple people, who are improving their habits, cure themselves of a stronger epithet. [Edward Everett Hale, "If, Yes, and Perhaps," 1868]

Compare also blamenation (1837) as an expletive. The imprecation blame me is attested from 1830.

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lochia (n.)
"discharge from the uterus after childbirth," 1680s, Modern Latin, from Greek lokhia "childbirth," neuter plural of lokhios "pertaining to childbirth," from lokhos "a lying in, childbirth," also, "an ambush," from PIE root *legh- "to lie down, lay." Related: Lochial. Greek Lokhia also was an epithet or surname of Artemis in her aspect as protectress of women in childbirth; in this case it is the fem. of the adjective lokhios.
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Phoebe 

fem. proper name, originally (late 14c.), a name of Artemis as the goddess of the moon, also the moon itself (mid-15c.); from Latin Phoebe, from Greek Phoebē, from phoibos "bright, pure," a word of unknown origin. The fem. form of Phoebus, an epithet of Apollo as sun-god. Phoebe, a notable figure in the early Church, is mentioned in Romans 16:1-2. Most popular as a given name for girls born in the U.S. in the 1880s and 2010s.

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Buddha (n.)
an epithet applied to the historical founder of Buddhism, 1680s, from Pali, literally "awakened, enlightened," past participle of budh "to awake, know, perceive," which is related to Sanskrit bodhati "is awake, observes, understands," from PIE root *bheudh- "be aware, make aware." Title given by his adherents to the man who taught this path, Siddhartha Gautama, also known to them as Sakyamuni "Sage of the Sakyas" (his family clan), who lived in northern India 5c. B.C.E.
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Bloody Mary 

the cocktail, attested from 1947 (originally touted in part as a hangover cure), said to be named for Mary Tudor, queen of England 1553-58, who earned her epithet for vigorous prosecution of Protestants. The drink earned its, apparently, simply for being red from tomato juice. The cocktail's popularity also coincided with that of the musical "South Pacific," which has a character named "Bloody Mary."

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chopping (adj.)

"large and thriving," 1560s, present-participle adjective from chop (v.). Compare strapping, whopping in similar sense. Chopper "a stout, lusty child" is colloquial from c. 1600.

chopping. An epithet frequently applied to infants, by way of ludicrous commendation: imagined by Skinner to signify lusty, from cas Sax. by others to mean a child that would bring money at a market. Perhaps a greedy, hungry child, likely to live. [Johnson]
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agonist (n.)

1876, in writings on Greek drama, "a hero (attacked in the play by an antagonist)," from Latin agonista, Greek agōnistes "rival combatant in the games, competitor; opponent (in a debate)," also, generally "one who struggles (for something)," from agōnia "a struggle for victory" (in wrestling, etc.), in a general sense "exercise, gymnastics;" also of mental struggles, "agony, anguish" (see agony). Agonistes as an (ironic) epithet seems to have been introduced in English by T.S. Eliot (1932).

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