Etymology
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repel (v.)

early 15c., "to drive away, remove, quench" (a sense now obsolete), from Old French repeller and directly from Latin repellere "to drive back," from re- "back" (see re-) + pellere "to drive, strike" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive").

The sense of "encounter (an invader, etc.) with effectual resistance, resist, oppose" is from mid-15c. The meaning "to affect (a person) with distaste or aversion" is by 1817. Related: Repelled; repelling.

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exact (adj.)
"precise, rigorous, accurate," 1530s, from Latin exactus "precise, accurate, highly finished," past-participle adjective from exigere "demand, require, enforce," literally "to drive or force out," also "to finish, measure," from ex "out" (see ex-) + agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward; to do, perform" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").
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cogent (adj.)

"compelling assent or conviction," 1650s, from French cogent "necessary, urgent" (14c.), from Latin cogentem (nominative cogens), present participle of cogere "to curdle; to compel; to collect," literally "to drive together," from assimilated form of com "together" (see co-) + agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward; to do, perform" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). Related: Cogently.

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exigent (adj.)

1660s, "urgent," a back-formation from exigency or else from Latin exigentem (nominative exigens), present participle of exigere "to demand; drive out, drive forth."

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impel (v.)
early 15c., from Latin impellere "to push, strike against; set in motion, drive forward, urge on," from assimilated form of in- "into, in, on, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + pellere "to push, drive" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive"). Related: Impelled; impelling.
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exigency (n.)

1580s, "that which is needed," from French exigence, from Latin exigentia "urgency," from exigentem (nominative exigens), present participle of exigere "demand, require, enforce," literally "to drive or force out," also "to finish, measure," from ex "out" (see ex-) + agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward; to do, perform" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). Meaning "state of being urgent" is from 1769. Related: Exigencies (1650s).

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exigence (n.)

mid-15c., "what is needed" (in a given situation), from Old French exigence or directly from Latin exigentia "urgency," from exigentem (nominative exigens), present participle of exigere "demand, require, enforce," literally "to drive or force out," also "to finish, measure," from ex "out" (see ex-) + agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward; to do, perform" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). From 1580s as "state of being urgent."

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exiguous (adj.)
"scanty, small, diminutive," 1650s, from Latin exiguus "small, short; petty, paltry, poor, mean; scanty in measure or number; strict," literally "measured, exact," from exigere "to drive out, take out," also "to finish, measure," from ex "out" (see ex-) + agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward; to do, perform" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). Compare immense "huge," literally "unmeasured."
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pen-driver (n.)

jocular or slighting term for a clerk or author, by 1820, from pen (n.1) + driver. Earlier was quill-driver (by 1760).

The Author goes on, and tells us, "that the two thousand hogs were not driven into the sea by evil spirits, but by the two madmen, who, in one of their frantic fits, frightened them into it."— But is it not more than intimated that the men were restored to their right mind before the hogs took to their heels? Besides, that two madmen should drive two thousand such ungovernable creatures as hogs one way, does, I think, exceed the belief of any hog-driver on the road, if not of the pen-driver in his closet. [introduction to "Beelzebub Driving and Drowning his Hogs," a sermon on Mark v.12, 13, by James Burgess, 1820]
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transaction (n.)

mid-15c., "the adjustment of a dispute, a negotiated agreement, management or settlement of an affair," from Old French transaccion "exchange, transaction," from Late Latin transactionem (nominative transactio) "an agreement, accomplishment," noun of action from past-participle stem of transigere "stab through; accomplish, perform, drive or carry through, come to a settlement," from trans "across, beyond; through" (see trans-) + agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward," hence "to do, perform" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). Meaning "a piece of business" is attested from 1640s. Related: Transactions; transactional.

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