Etymology
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segment (v.)

1859 (implied in segmented), "divide or become divided into segments," in reference to cell division, from segment (n.). Transitive sense, "divide (something) into segments" is from 1872. Related: Segmenting.

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tide (n.)

Old English tīd "point or portion of time, due time, period, season; feast-day, canonical hour," from Proto-Germanic *tīdi- "division of time" (source also of Old Saxon tid, Dutch tijd, Old High German zit, German Zeit "time"), from PIE *di-ti- "division, division of time," suffixed form of root *da- "to divide."

Meaning "rise and fall of the sea" (mid-14c.) probably is via notion of "fixed time," specifically "time of high water;" either a native evolution or from Middle Low German getide (compare Middle Dutch tijd, Dutch tij, German Gezeiten "flood tide, tide of the sea"). Old English seems to have had no specific word for this, using flod and ebba to refer to the rise and fall. Old English heahtid "high tide" meant "festival, high day."

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quotient (n.)

in mathematics, "the result of the process of division, quantity resulting from the division of one number by another, number of times one quantity is contained in another," mid-15c., quocient, from Latin quotiens "how often? how many times?; as often as," pronominal adverb of time, from quot "how many?" (from PIE root *kwo-, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns). The Latin adverb quotiens was mistaken in Middle English for a present participle of quot in -ens.

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tidings (n.)

"announcement of an event," c. 1200, from late Old English tidung "event, occurrence, piece of news," verbal noun from Old English tidan "to happen," or in part from Old Norse tiðendi (plural) "events, news," from tiðr (adj.) "occurring," both from Proto-Germanic tīdōjanan, from PIE *di-ti- "division, division of time," suffixed form of root *da- "to divide." Similar formation in Norwegian tidende "tidings, news," Dutch tijding, German Zeitung "newspaper."

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schizo- 

word-forming element meaning "division; split, cleavage," from Latinized form of Greek skhizo-, combining form ("irregular," says OED) of skhizein "to split, cleave, part, separate" (from PIE root *skei- "to cut, split").

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share (n.1)

[portion of something belonging to an individual], Middle English share, from Old English scearu "a cutting, shearing, tonsure; a part or division, a piece cut off," from the source of sceran "to cut," from Proto-Germanic *skeraz (source also of Old High German scara "troop, share of forced labor," German Schar "troop, band," properly "a part of an army," Old Norse skör "rim"), from PIE root *sker- (1) "to cut," and compare share (n.2).

In Old English mostly in compounds: landscearu "a share of land," folcscearu "a division of the people." By late 14c. as "part or definite portion of a thing owned by a number in common" (in reference to booty or war prizes); the specific commercial meaning "part of the capital of a joint stock company" is attested by c. 1600.

The same Old English noun in the sense "division" led to an obsolete noun share "fork ('division') of the body at the groin; pubic region" (late Old English and Middle English); hence share-bone "pubis" (early 15c.).

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portion (n.)

early 14c., porcioun, "allotted part, part assigned or attributed, share," also "lot, fate, destiny," from Old French porcion "part, portion" (12c., Modern French portion) and directly from Latin portionem (nominative portio) "share, part," accusative of the noun in the phrase pro portione "according to the relation (of parts to each other)," ablative of *partio "division," related to pars "a part, piece, a share, a division" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot").

Meaning "a part of a whole" is from mid-14c. From late 14c. in the general sense of "section into which something is divided."

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Chordata 

"division of the animal kingdom including the true vertebrates," 1880, Modern Latin, from neuter plural of Latin chordatus "having a (spinal) cord," from chorda "cord, string" (from PIE root *ghere- "gut, entrail").

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amt (n.)

territorial division in Denmark and Norway, from Danish amt, from German Amt "office," from Old High German ambaht, a word of Celtic origin related to Gallo-Roman ambactus "servant" (see ambassador).

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particle (n.)

late 14c., "a bit or fragment, small part or division of a whole, minute portion of matter," from Latin particula "little bit or part, grain, jot," diminutive of pars (genitive partis) "a part, piece, division" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot"). In grammar, "a part of speech considered of minor consequence or playing a subordinate part in the construction of a sentence" (1530s). Particle physics, which is concerned with sub-atomic particles, is attested from 1969. In construction, particle board (1957) is so called because it is made from chips and shavings of wood.

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