Etymology
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hypostasis (n.)
Greek word meaning "substance; subsistence;" from hypo "under, beneath" (see hypo-) + stasis "a standing, a position" (see stasis). Used in Ecclesiastical Greek since earliest times for "person" of God in the Trinity. This led to centuries of wrangling over the definition. "In the necessity they were under of expressing themselves strongly against the Sabellians, the Greeks made choice of the word hypostasis, and the Latins of persona ; which change proved the occasion of endless disagreement" ["Pantologia, A New Cabinet Cyclopaedia," London, 1819]. The same word in old medicine meant "sediment in the urine."
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Bow bells (n.)
"born within the sound of Bow Bells" is the traditional (since early 17c.) definition of a Cockney; the reference is to the bells of the church of St. Mary-le-Bow in London's Cheapside district. A church or chapel probably stood there in Anglo-Saxon times, and has been rebuilt many times (it was last destroyed in a 1941 air raid); the bells were noted for their sound from 16c., and a great bell hung there from 1762 to 1941. The church was noted from medieval times for its arches, hence the name, from bow (n.1).
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Anti-American (adj.)

also antiamerican, 1773, in reference to British parliamentary policies, from anti- + American. As a noun by 1788. Related: Anti-Americanism "opposition to what is distinctly American" (1844).

The term "anti-American" is a loose one, and loosely employed. My own working definition of it, admittedly a slack one also, is that a person is anti-American if he or she is consistently contemptuous of American culture and furthermore supports any opponent of U.S. policy, whoever this may be. [Christopher Hitchens, review of "The Life of Graham Greene, Vol. II," The Atlantic, March 2005]
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truism (n.)

"self-evident truth," 1708, from true (adj.) + -ism; first attested in Swift.

A truism in the strict sense (to which it might be well, but is perhaps now impossible, to confine it) is a statement in which the predicate gives no information about the subject that is not implicit in the definition of the subject itself. What is right ought to be done ; since the right is definable as that which ought to be done, this means What ought to be done ought to be done, i.e., it is a disguised identical proposition, or a truism. [Fowler, 1926]
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civil disobedience (n.)

coined 1866 by Thoreau as the title of his essay originally published (1849) as "Resistance to Civil Government."

If the alternative is to keep all just men in prison, or give up war and slavery, the State will not hesitate which to choose. If a thousand men were not to pay their tax-bills this year, that would not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the State to commit violence and shed innocent blood. This is, in fact, the definition of a peaceable revolution, if any such is possible. [Thoreau]
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bushel (n.)
early 14c., measure of capacity containing four pecks or eight gallons, from Old French boissel "bushel" (13c., Modern French boisseau), probably from boisse, a grain measure based on Gallo-Roman *bostia "handful," from Gaulish *bosta "palm of the hand" (compare Irish bass, Breton boz "the hollow of the hand").

The exact measure varied from place to place and according to commodity, and though in 19c. in Britain it acquired a precise legal definition, it varied in U.S. from state to state. Used since late 14c. loosely to mean "a large quantity or number." From late 14c. as "a bushel basket." To hide (one's) light under a bushel is from Matthew v.15.
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hi (interj.)

exclamation of greeting, 1862, American English (first recorded reference is to speech of a Kansas Indian), originally to attract attention (15c.), probably a variant of Middle English hy, hey (late 15c.) which also was an exclamation to call attention. The only definition in the "Century Dictionary" [1902] is "An exclamation of surprise, admiration, etc.: often used ironically and in derision," suggesting the development as a greeting-word mostly took place early 20c.

Even more informal is the widely used 'Hi.' A friendly greeting for people who already know each other, it should never be said in answer to a formal introduction, but it is universally used, and accepted, by the young. ["The New Emily Post's Etiquette," 1922]

Extended form hiya attested from 1940.

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connote (v.)

1660s, "to denote secondarily," from Medieval Latin connotare "to signify in addition to the main meaning," a term in logic, literally "to mark along with," from assimilated form of Latin com "with, together" (see con-) + notare "to mark, note, make a note," from nota "mark, sign, means of recognition" (see note (n.)). Meaning "to signify, constitute the meaning of a word" is from 1829 (J.S. Mill); hence, in extended general sense "to imply" (1865). Related: Connoted; connoting.

A word denotes its primary meaning, its barest adequate definition -- father denotes "one that has begotten." A word connotes the attributes commonly associated with it -- father connotes "male sex, prior existence, greater experience, affection, guidance."

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buster (n.)
1838, "anything large or exceptional; a man of great strength," American English slang (originally Missouri/Arkansas), perhaps meaning something that takes one's breath away and thus an agent noun from bust (v.). Around the same years, buster (as an extended form of bust (n.)) also meant "a frolic, a spree," hence "a roistering blade" (OED's definition, probably not the way they would have explained it in old Missouri and Arkansas), which might have influenced it. As a generic or playful address to a male from 1948, American English. Meaning "horse-breaker" is from 1891, American English; hence the back-formed verb bust (v.) "break a horse."
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calorie (n.)

unit of heat in physics, 1866, from French calorie, from Latin calor (genitive caloris) "heat," from PIE *kle-os-, suffixed form of root *kele- (1) "warm."

As a unit of energy, defined as "heat required to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius" (the small or gram calorie), but as a measure of the energy-producing value of food, "heat required to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius" (the large calorie or kilocalorie). In part because of this confused definition, it was largely replaced 1950 in scientific use by the joule. Calorie-counting or -watching as a method of scientific weight-regulation is attested by 1908.

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