early 15c., "a reproof for fault or wrong, a direct reprimand," also "an insult, a rebuff," nd in the now archaic sense of "a shame, disgrace," from rebuke (v.). From mid-15c. as "a setback, a defeat."
1926, "a German seeking to avenge Germany's defeat in World War I and recover lost territory," on model of French revanchiste, which had been used in reference to those in France who sought to reverse the results of the defeat of France by Prussia in 1871 (which was accomplished by World War I).
This is from revanche "revenge, requital," especially in reference to a national policy seeking return of lost territory, from French revanche "revenge," earlier revenche, back-formation from revenchier (see revenge (v.)). Used during the Cold War in Soviet propaganda in reference to West Germany. Related: Revanchism (1954).
c. 1200, cunquearen, "to achieve" (a task), from Old French conquerre "conquer, defeat, vanquish," from Vulgar Latin *conquaerere (for Latin conquirere) "to search for, procure by effort, win," from assimilated form of Latin com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + quaerere "to seek, gain" (see query (v.)).
From c. 1300 as "to win (from); defeat (an adversary), overcome, subdue; make a conquest, be victorious, win or secure (something)." From early 14c. as "to acquire (a country) by force of arms." Related: Conquered; conquering.
Hence, "to overthrow, defeat" (1540s; as a noun in this sense from late 15c.); "frustrate the efforts of" (1560s). Related: Foiled; foiling. Foiled again! as a cry of defeat and dismay is from at least 1847.
c. 1300, ouerthrouen, "to knock down, throw down, cast headlong," from over- + throw (v.). Figurative sense of "to cast down from power, defeat" is attested from late 14c. Related: Overthrown; overthrowing. Earlier in same senses was Middle English overwerpen "to overturn (something), overthrow; destroy," from Old English oferweorpan (see warp (v.)).