Etymology
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constable (n.)

c. 1200, "chief household officer;" c. 1300, "justice of the peace," from Old French conestable (12c., Modern French connétable), "steward, governor," principal officer of the Frankish king's household, from Medieval Latin conestabulus, from Late Latin comes stabuli, literally "count of the stable" (established by Theodosian Code, c. 438 C.E.), hence, "chief groom."

For first element, see count (n.1). Second element is from Latin stabulum "stable, standing place" (see stable (n.)). Probably the whole is a loan-translation of a Germanic word. Compare marshal (n.).

Meaning "an officer chosen to serve minor legal process" is from c. 1600, transferred to "police officer" by 1836. French reborrowed constable 19c. as "English police."

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account (v.)
Origin and meaning of account
c. 1300, "to count, enumerate," from Old French aconter "to enumerate; reckon up, render account" (Modern French conter), from a "to" (see ad-) + conter "to count, tell" (see count (v.)).

Meaning "to reckon for money given or received, render a reckoning," is from late 14c. Sense of "to explain, justify" (c. 1300) is from notion of "present a detailed explanation of money, etc. held in trust." Transferred sense of "to value, to estimate" (to account as belonging to a certain class of quality) is from late 14c. Intransitive sense of "to render an account of particulars" is from late 14c.; hence transitive sense "give an explanation" (1670s, usually with to before a person and for before a thing).

In later Old French partly re-Latinized as acompter (Modern French accompter), hence late Middle English accompten. Related: Accounted; accounting.
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earl (n.)

Old English eorl "brave man, warrior, leader, chief" (contrasted with ceorl "churl"), from Proto-Germanic *erlaz, which is of uncertain origin. In Anglo-Saxon poetry, "a warrior, a brave man;" in later Old English, "nobleman," especially a Danish under-king (equivalent of cognate Old Norse jarl), then one of the viceroys under the Danish dynasty in England. After 1066 adopted as the equivalent of Latin comes (see count (n.1)).

Earl Gray tea (1880s) was originally a Chinese tea blended with bergamot oil, supposedly from a recipe given to Charles, second Earl Gray (the Whig prime minister), in the 1830s, but perhaps it was named later, commercially, in his honor.

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*pau- (2)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut, strike, stamp."

It forms all or part of: account; amputate; amputation; anapest; berate; compute; count (v.); depute; deputy; dispute; impute; pave; pavement; pit (n.1) "hole, cavity;" putative; rate (v.1) "to scold;" reputation; repute.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin pavire "to beat, ram, tread down," putare "to prune;" Greek paiein "to strike;" Lithuanian pjauti "to cut," pjūklas "saw."

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alderman (n.)

Old English aldormonn (Mercian), ealdormann (West Saxon) "Anglo-Saxon ruler, prince, chief; chief officer of a shire," from aldor, ealder "patriarch" (comparative of ald "old;" see old) + monn, mann "man" (from PIE root *man- (1) "man").

Presumably originally of elders of the clan or tribe, but already in Old English used for king's viceroys, regardless of age. In later Old English a more specific title, "chief magistrate of a county," having both civic and military duties. The word yielded under Canute to eorl (see earl), and after the Norman Conquest to count (n.). Having lost its specific sense, alderman was then applied to any head man; meaning "headman of a guild" (early 12c.) passed to "magistrate of a city" (c. 1200) as the guilds became identified with municipal government. Related: Aldermancy; aldermanic.

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*ei- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to go."

It forms all or part of: Abitur; adit; ambience; ambient; ambit; ambition; ambitious; andante; anion; cation; circuit; coitus; commence; commencement; concomitant; constable; count (n.1) title of nobility; county; dysprosium; errant; exit; initial; initiate; initiation; introit; ion; issue; itinerant; itinerary; janitor; January; Janus; Jena; Mahayana; obiter; obituary; perish; praetor; Praetorian; preterite; sedition; sudden; trance; transient; transit; transitive; viscount.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit e'ti "goes," imas "we go," ayanam "a going, way;" Avestan ae'iti "goes," Old Persian aitiy "goes;" Greek ienai "to go;" Latin ire "to go," iter "a way;" Old Irish ethaim "I go," Irish bothar "a road" (from *bou-itro- "cows' way"), Gaulish eimu "we go;" Lithuanian eiti "to go;" Old Church Slavonic iti "go;" Bulgarian ida "I go;" Russian idti "to go;" Gothic iddja "went."
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counter (n.2)

c. 1300, countour, "one who counts or reckons, an accountant, a local tax official," from Anglo-French countour, which is from an Old French merger of Latin computator and Medieval Latin computatorium, both ultimately from Latin computare "to count, sum up, reckon together" (see compute).

From late 14c. as "metal disk or other thing used in counting." From 1803 as "apparatus for keeping count."

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counter (n.1)

mid-14c., "table where a money lender does business," from Old French contouer, comptoir "counting room; table or bench of a merchant or bank" (14c.), from Medieval Latin computatorium "place of accounts," from Latin computatus, past participle of computare "to count, sum up, reckon together" (see compute).

Generalized 19c. from banks to shops, then extended to display cases for goods. In reference to a similar construction in a home kitchen by 1875. Over-the-counter in reference to goods sold and money paid is by 1875; phrase under the counter in reference to illegal or clandestine transactions is by 1926.

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numerate (v.)

"to count, enumerate," 1721, from Latin numeratus, past participle of numerare "to count, to number," from numerus "a number" (see number (n.)). Related: Numerated; numerating.

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sum (v.)
early 14c., "to count, count up, calculate, reckon," from Old French sommer "to count, add up," or directly from Medieval Latin summare, from summa (see sum (n.)). Meaning "briefly state the substance of" is first recorded 1620s (since c. 1700 usually with up). Related: Summed; summing.
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