1610s, "act of clearing or refining" (especially of liquid substances), from French clarification, from Late Latin clarificationem (nominative clarificatio), noun of action from past participle stem of clarificare "to make clear" (see clarify). The meaning "statement revising or expanding an earlier statement but stopping short of a correction" is attested by 1969, originally in newspapers.
c. 1400, rectificacioun, "a remedying, healing, improvement;" late 15c., "action of setting someone right in conduct or action, the correction of that which is wrong or erroneous;" from Old French rectificacion (14c.) or directly from Late Latin rectificationem (nominative rectificatio), noun of action from past participle stem of rectificare "make right; make straight" (see rectify).
1580s, "address or direction on a letter," from French superscript, from Latin superscriptus "written above," past participle of superscribere "write over or above something (as a correction)," from super "above" (see super-) + scribere "to write" (from PIE root *skribh- "to cut"). Meaning "number or letter written above something" first recorded 1901.
"inflict trouble or pain on for the purpose of correction," 1520s, with -en (1) + the word it replaced, obsolete verb chaste "to correct (someone's) behavior" (Middle English chastien, c. 1200), from Old French chastiier "to punish" (see chastise). Now chiefly in reference to moral discipline, divine rather than corporal punishment. Related: Chastened; chastening.
Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth [Hebrews xii.6]
1530s, "dutiful or courteous approach," from address (v.) and from French adresse (13c., from the verb in French). Meaning "power of directing one's actions and conduct" is from 1590s. Meaning "act or manner of speaking to" is from 1670s. Sense of "formal speech to an audience" (Gettysburg Address, etc.) is from 1751. Sense of "superscription of a letter" (guiding it to its destination) is from 1712 and led to the meaning "place of residence" (from c. 1816). Transferred use in computer programming is from 1948. Middle English had a noun addressing "control, correction" (late 14c.).
"to chastise, punish," c. 1600, from Latin castigatus, past participle of castigare "to correct, set right; purify; chastise, punish," from castus "pure" (see caste) + agere "to do" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). The notion behind the word is "make someone pure by correction or reproof." Compare purge (v.), from purus + agere. Related: Castigated; castigating; castigator; castigatory.
If thou didst put this soure cold habit on To castigate thy pride, 'twere well. [Shakespeare, "Timon" IV.iii (1607)]
supreme council and highest ecclesiastical and judicial tribunal of the ancient Jews, 1580s, from Late Hebrew sanhedrin (gedola) "(great) council," from Greek synedrion "assembly, council," literally "sitting together," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + hedra "seat" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit"). Compare cathedral.
Abolished at the destruction of Jerusalem, C.E. 70. The proper form is sanhedrin; the error began as a false correction when the Greek word was taken into Mishanic Hebrew, where -in is a form of the plural suffix of which -im is the more exact form.
early 15c., penitenciarie, "place of punishment for offenses against the church," also "a priest appointed to administer the sacrament of penance," especially in extraordinary cases, from Medieval Latin penitentiaria, from fem. of penitentiarius (adj.) "of penance," from Latin paenitentia "penitence" (see penitence).
The meaning "house of correction, prison in which convicts are confined for punishment and reformation and compelled to labor" (originally an asylum for prostitutes) is from 1806, short for penitentiary house (1776). Slang shortening pen is attested from 1884.
As an adjective, from 1570s as "relating to penance," by 1791 as "expressive of contrition."