Etymology
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restrained (adj.)

late 15c., "self-controlled; kept under control," past-participle adjective from restrain. Related: Restrainedly.

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refrain (v.)

mid-14c., refreinen, transitive, "exercise control over, restrain; hold (someone or something) back from action," senses now obsolete, also "exercise control over" (thoughts, desires, feelings, vices, etc.); from Old French refraigner, refrener, refreiner "restrain, repress, keep in check" (12c., Modern French réfréner).

This is from Latin refrenare "to bridle, hold in with a bit, check, curb, keep down, control," from re- "back" (see re-) + frenare "restrain, furnish with a bridle," from frenum "a bridle," a word of uncertain etymology (de Vaan supports a theory that it is connected to fretus "relying on").

The classical spelling was restored in French but not in English. In Middle English chiefly transitive. Intransitive sense of "forbear, keep oneself (from)" is from mid-15c. Reflexive sense of "control oneself, put restraint upon oneself" is from late 14c. Related: Refrained; refraining.

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antarchism (n.)
"opposition to all social government or control of individuals by law," 1845, from antarchy + -ism. Related: Antarchist; antarchistic.
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firmware (n.)

"permanent software programmed into a read-only memory and providing the low-level control for the device's hardware," 1968, from firm (adj.) + ending from software.

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tailspin (n.)
"downward spiraling dive of an aircraft," 1916, from tail (n.1) + spin (n.). Figurative sense of "state of loss of control" is from 1928.
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territoriality (n.)
"possession and control of territory," 1839, as a concept in international law, from territorial + -ity. From 1941 in reference to animal behavior.
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contraception (n.)
Origin and meaning of contraception

"birth control, prevention of conception in the womb," coined 1886 from Latin contra "against" (see contra (prep., adv.)) + ending from conception.

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collected (adj.)

"having control of one's mental faculties, self-possessed," c. 1600, past-participle adjective from collect (v.). Related: Collectedness.

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impotence (n.)
early 15c., "physical weakness," also "poverty," from Old French impotence "weakness" (13c.), from Latin impotentia "lack of control or power," from impotentem "lacking control, powerless" (see impotent). In reference to a complete want of (male) sexual potency, from c. 1500. The figurative senses of the word in Latin were "violence, fury, unbridled passion," via the notion of "want of self-restraining power," and these sometimes were used in English. Related: Impotency.
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micromanage (v.)

"closely control and supervise the work of a subordinate, etc.; pay excessive attention to details in managing," by 1978, from micro- + manage (v.). Related: Micromanagement; micromanaged; micromanaging.

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