Etymology
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smelt (n.)

Old English smelt "sardine, small salmon-like sea fish," cognate with Dutch smelt "sand eel," Danish smelt (c. 1600). OED notes that it has a peculiar odor (but doesn't suggest a connection with smell); Klein suggests a connection with the way the fish melts in one's mouth. Century Dictionary speculates it means "smooth" and compares Old English smeolt, smylt "serene, smooth." Watkins says from PIE root *mel- (1) "soft."

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nick (v.)

1520s, "to make a notch or notches in," from nick (n.). Sense of "to steal" is from 1869, probably from earlier slang sense of "to catch, take unawares, arrest" (1620s). The precise sense connection is unclear. Related: Nicked; nicking.

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get-out (n.)

also getout, figuratively indicating a high degree of something, by 1838, colloquial, from get (v.) + out (adv.). Verbal phrase get out as a command to go away is from 1711, but sense connection is not clear.

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hassock (n.)

Old English hassuc "clump of grass, coarse grass," of unknown origin. Sense of "thick cushion" is first recorded 1510s, with the likely connection being the perceived similarity of a kneeling cushion and a tuft of grass. Related: Hassocky.

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ceramic (adj.)

1850, keramic, "of or belonging to pottery," from Greek keramikos, from keramos "potter's earth; tile; earthen vessel, jar, wine-jar, pottery," which perhaps from a pre-Hellenic word.

Watkins suggests a connection with Latin cremare "to burn," but Klein's sources are firmly against this. Beekes writes "No certain etymology," finds connection with kerasai "to mix" to be "formally unproblematic, but semantically not very convincing," and regards the proposed connection to verbs for "to burn, glow" "better from the semantic side." He concludes, "this technical term for tile-making may well be Pre-Greek (or Anatolian)."

The spelling has been influenced by French céramique (1806). Related: ceramist "person devoted to ceramic art" (1855). Ceramics "art of making things from clay molded and baked" is attested from 1857.

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relation (n.)

c. 1300, relacioun, "relationship, connection, correspondence;" late 14c. as "act of telling or relating in words," from Anglo-French relacioun, Old French relacion "report, connection" (14c.) and directly from Latin relationem (nominative relatio) "a bringing back, restoring; a report, proposition," from relatus (see relate).

The meaning "person related by blood or marriage" is attested from c. 1500. The phrase no relation "not in the same family," used in differentiating persons with the same surname, is attested by 1930.

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disavow (v.)

"refuse to avow; disclaim knowledge of, responsibility for, or connection with," late 14c., from Old French desavouer (13c.), from des- "opposite of" (see dis-) + avouer "acknowledge, accept, recognize" (see avow). Related: Disavowed; disavowing.

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Pavlovian (adj.)

1931, from the theories, experiments, and methods of Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), especially in connection with the conditioned salivary reflexes of dogs in response to the mental stimulus of the sound of a bell (attested from 1911, in Pavloff [sic] method).

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shy (v.1)

1787, shie, "throw a missile with a jerk or toss," 1787, chiefly colloquial according to OED, of obscure origin and uncertain connection to shy (adj.). The transitive sense of "fling, throw, toss" (with at) is by 1793. Related: Shied; shying.

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sprain (n.)

c. 1600, of uncertain origin. The verb is attested from 1620s. A connection has been suggested to French espraindre "to press out," from Latin exprimere [Klein, Century Dictionary], but the sense evolution is difficult. Related: Sprained; spraining.

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