late 14c., "one who serves" in any capacity, agent noun from serve (v.). Especially "an attendant at a meal" (mid-15c.). By 1580s in sports. The meaning "that which is used in serving" is by c. 1600; the computing sense is by 1992.
late 14c., "art, manner, or practice of computing by numbers," also "the process of making a horoscope," from Late Latin calculationem (nominative calculatio) "a computation, calculation, reckoning," noun of action from past-participle stem of calculare "to reckon, compute," from Latin calculus "reckoning, account," originally "pebble used in counting," diminutive of calx (genitive calcis) "limestone" (see chalk (n.)). From early 15c. as "the result of reckoning, the solution for a problem."
also ikon, 1570s, "image, figure, picture," also "statue," from Late Latin icon, from Greek eikon "likeness, image, portrait; image in a mirror; a semblance, phantom image;" in philosophy, "an image in the mind," related to eikenai "be like, look like," which is of uncertain origin. The specific Eastern Church sense is attested from 1833 in English. Computing sense first recorded 1982.
1660s, "round, approximately flat surface," from Latin discus "quoit, discus, disk," from Greek diskos "disk, quoit, platter," related to dikein "to throw" (see discus).
The American English preferred spelling; also see disc. From 1803 as "thin, circular plate;" sense of "phonograph disk" is by 1888; computing sense is from 1947. Disk jockey first recorded 1941; dee-jay is from 1955; DJ is by 1961; video version veejay is from 1982. Disk-drive is from 1952.
late 14c., crasschen "break in pieces; make a loud, clattering sound;" probably imitative. Meaning "break into a party, etc." is 1922. Slang meaning "to sleep" dates from 1943; especially from 1965. Of destructive aircraft landings, 1910 (intransitive), 1915 (transitive). Computing sense "functional failure of a program" is from 1973. Related: Crashed; crashing. Crashing (adj.) as "overwhelming" (typically in crashing bore) is by 1930.
The word was used in English in Greek form (analogon) in 1810. Meaning "word corresponding with another" is from 1837. Computing sense, in reference to operating with numbers represented by some measurable quantity (as a slide-rule does; opposed to digital) is recorded from 1946.
early 13c., "offense, crime, sin;" late 13c., "a failing or failure, failure to act," from Old French defaute (12c.) "fault, defect, failure, culpability, lack, privation," from Vulgar Latin *defallita "a deficiency or failure," past participle of *defallere, from Latin de "away" (see de-) + fallere "to deceive, to cheat; to put wrong, to lead astray, cause to be mistaken; to escape notice of, be concealed from" (see fail (v.)). The financial sense is first recorded 1858; the computing sense is from 1966.