1530s, "a fixing of rates, proportionate distribution of charge or compensation," verbal noun from rate (v.2). Meaning "a classification according to grade or rank" is from 1764.
Ratings "statistical estimate of the size of an audience for a particular broadcast," originally radio programs, began in 1930 in U.S. under a system set up by pollster and market researcher Archibald M. Crossley (1896-1985), and were called Crossley ratings or Crossleys until ratings began to be preferred c. 1947.
1640s, "payment for saving a ship from wreck or capture," from French salvage (15c.), from Old French salver "to save" (see save (v.)). The general sense of "the saving of property from danger" is attested from 1878. Meaning "recycling of waste material" is from 1918, from the British effort in World War I.
An allowance or compensation to which those are entitled by whose voluntary exertions, when they were under no legal obligation to render assistance, a ship or goods have been saved from the dangers of the sea, fire, pirates, or enemies. [Century Dictionary]
The earlier Middle English word was interesse (late 14c.), from Anglo-French interesse "what one has a legal concern in," from Medieval Latin interesse "compensation for loss," noun use of Latin interresse (compare German Interesse, from the same Medieval Latin source).
Financial sense of "money paid for the use of money lent" (1520s) earlier was distinguished from usury (illegal under Church law) by being in reference to "compensation due from a defaulting debtor." Sense of "personal or selfish consideration" is from 1620s. Meaning "business in which several people are interested" is from 1670s. Meaning "curiosity, feeling that something concerns one, appreciative or sympathetic regard" is first attested 1771. Interest group is attested from 1907; interest rate by 1868.
early 15c., "compensation, payment for a debt or obligation; satisfaction, amends; retribution, punishment," from Medieval Latin recompensa and Old French recompense (13c., related to recompenser "make good, recompense"), from Late Latin recompensare (see recompense (v.)). The notion is "an equivalent or recompense for anything given," especially "reparation or restitution to another for some wrong done to him." Earlier in the same sense is recompensation (late 14c., from Late Latin).
formerly also milage, 1754, "allowance or compensation for travel or conveyance reckoned by the mile," originally in reference to American political representatives, from mile + -age. From 1837 as "fixed rate per mile," originally for use of railroad cars. Meaning "a total number of miles" (of a way made, used, or traversed) is from 1861; the figurative use in this sense, "usefulness, derived benefit" is by 1860. Of a motor vehicle, "miles driven per gallon of gasoline," by 1912.
mid-15c., "the profit arising from office or employment, that which is given as compensation for services," from Old French émolument "advantage, gain, benefit; income, revenue" (13c.) and directly from Latin emolumentum "profit, gain, advantage, benefit," perhaps originally "payment to a miller for grinding corn," from emolere "grind out," from assimilated form of ex "out" (see ex-) + molere "to grind" (from PIE root *mele- "to crush, grind"). Formerly also "profit, advantage, gain in general, that which promotes the good of any person or thing" (1630s).
c. 1200, cwitance, quitaunce, "payment, compensation;" c. 1300, "a discharge from a debt or an obligation," from Old French quitance (Modern French quittance), from quiter "clear, establish one's innocence;" also transitive, "release, let go, relinquish, abandon" (12c.), from quite "free, clear, entire, at liberty; discharged; unmarried," from Medieval Latin quitus, quittus, from Latin quietus "free" (in Medieval Latin "free from war, debts, etc."), also "calm, resting" (from PIE root *kweie- "to rest, be quiet"). The Middle English word also is in part from Medieval Latin quittantia, a variant of quietantia.