Etymology
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comminute (v.)

"make (solids) small or fine, reduce to a fine powder," 1620s, from Latin comminutus, past participle of comminuere "to lessen, break into smaller parts," from com "with, together" (see com-) + minuere "to make smaller" (from PIE root *mei- (2) "small"). Related: Comminuted; comminuting; comminution (1570s, from Latin comminutionem).

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compaction (n.)

late 14c., "act of making or state of being compact," from Old French compaction, from Latin compactionem (nominative compactio) "a putting or joining together," noun of action from past participle stem of compingere "to fasten together, construct," from com "with, together" (see com-) + pangere "to fix, fasten" (from PIE root *pag- "to fasten"). From 1520s as "the making of a compact."

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compulsory (adj.)

1580s, "obligatory, arising from compulsion, done under compulsion," from Medieval Latin compulsorius, from Latin compulsus, past participle of compellere "to drive together, force," from com "with, together" (see com-) + pellere "to drive" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive"). As "coercive, exercising compulsion" from 1630s. As a noun from 1510s, originally "a compulsory means." Related: Compulsories; compulsorily; compulsoriness.

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combat (v.)

1560s, "to fight, struggle, contend" (intransitive), from French combat (16c.), from Old French combattre (12c.), from Late Latin combattere, from Latin com "with (each other)," see com-, + battuere "to beat, fight" (see batter (v.)). Transitive sense is from 1580s; figurative sense from 1620s. Related: Combated; combating; combatted; combatting.

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collide (v.)

"to strike together forcibly," 1620s, from Latin collidere "strike together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + laedere "to strike, injure by striking," which is of unknown origin. For Latin vowel change, see acquisition. Related: Collided; colliding.

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contra (prep., adv.)

"against, over against, opposite, on the opposite side; on the contrary, contrariwise," mid-14c., from Latin contra (prep. and adv.) "against," originally "in comparison with," ablative singular feminine of *com-teros, from Old Latin com "with, together" (see com-) + -tr, zero-degree form of the comparative suffix -ter-.

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compact (adj.)

late 14c., of substances, "closely and firmly united," from Latin compactus "concentrated," past participle of compingere "to fasten together, construct," from com "with, together" (see com-) + pangere "to fix, fasten" (from PIE root *pag- "to fasten"). Related: Compactly; compactness. Compact car is 1960. Compact disc is from 1979.

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complicate (v.)

1620s, "to intertwine," from Latin complicatus "folded together; confused, intricate," past participle of complicare "to involve," literally "to fold together," from com "with, together" (see com-) + plicare "to fold, weave" (from PIE root *plek- "to plait"). Meaning "to make more complex or intricate" is recorded from 1832, from earlier sense "to combine in a complex way" (17c.). Related: Complicated; complicating.

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computation (n.)

c. 1400, "act, process, or method of arithmetical calculation," from Latin computationem (nominative computatio), noun of action from past participle stem of computare "to sum up, reckon, compute," from com "with, together" (see com-) + putare "to reckon," originally "to prune," from PIE root *pau- (2) "to cut, strike, stamp." From 1713 as "a result of computation, amount reckoned."

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compel (v.)

"to drive or urge irresistibly by physical or moral force," mid-14c., from Old French compellir and directly from Latin compellere "to drive together, drive to one place" (of cattle), "to force or compel" (of persons), from com "with, together" (see com-) + pellere "to drive" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive"). Related: Compelled; compelling.

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