Etymology
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coda (n.)

"passage added to a musical composition for the purpose of bringing it to a conclusion," 1753, from Latin cauda "tail of an animal," which is of uncertain origin. De Vaan traces it to Proto-Italic *kaud-a- "part; tail," from PIE *kehu-d- "cleaved, separate," from root *khu-. He writes: "Since words for 'piece, part' are often derived from 'to cut, cleave', the tail may have been referred to as the loose 'part' of the animal."

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plinth (n.)

"flat, square table or slab under the molding of the base of a Roman column; square molding at the base of any architectural part," 1610s, from French plinthe (16c.) and directly from Latin plinthus, from Greek plinthos "brick, squared stone," from PIE *splind- "to split, cleave," from root *(s)plei- "to splice, split" (see flint).

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glyptodon (n.)

extinct gigantic armadillo-like mammal from the Pleistocene of South America, 1838, irregularly formed from Greek glyptos "carved, engraved" (verbal adjective of glyphein "to engrave, carve;" from PIE root *gleubh- "to tear apart, cleave") + odon (genitive odontos) "tooth" (from PIE root *dent- "tooth"). So named for its fluted teeth.

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adhere (v.)

1590s, from French adhérer "to stick, adhere" (15c., corrected from earlier aderer, 14c.) or directly from Latin adhaerare "to stick, cling to," from ad "to" (see ad-) + haerere "to stick" (see hesitation). Originally often of persons, "to cleave to a leader, cause, party, etc." (compare adherent (n.), which still often retains this sense). Related: Adhered; adhering.

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clevis (n.)

"U-shaped iron bar with holes at the ends for a bolt or pin, used as a fastener," 1590s, of unknown origin; perhaps from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse klofi "a cleft," from Proto-Germanic *klub‑ "a splitting," from PIE root *gleubh- "to tear apart, cleave." Also uncertain is whether it is originally a plural or a singular.

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hieroglyphic (adj.)

1580s, "of the nature of Egyptian monumental writing," from Late Latin hieroglyphicus, from Greek hieroglyphikos "hieroglyphic; of Egyptian writing," from hieros "sacred" (see ire) + glyphē "carving," from glyphein "to carve" (from PIE root *gleubh- "to tear apart, cleave").

Plutarch began the custom of using the adjective (ta hieroglyphika) as a noun in reference to the Egyptian way of writing. The noun use of hieroglyphic in English dates to 1580s (hieroglyphics). Related: Hieroglyphical; hieroglyphically.

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eclat (n.)
1670s, "showy brilliance," from French éclat "splinter, fragment" (12c.), also "flash of brilliance," from eclater "burst out; shine brilliantly; splinter, fly to fragments," from Old French esclater "smash, shatter into pieces," which is of uncertain origin, perhaps from a Germanic word related to slit (v.) and to Old High German skleizen "tear to pieces; to split, cleave." Extended sense of "conspicuous success" is first recorded in English in 1741.
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clove (n.2)

"slice or small bulb forming together a large bulb, as of garlic," Old English clufu "clove (of garlic), bulb, tuber," from Proto-Germanic *klubo "cleft, thing cloven" (source also of Old High German chlobo, Old Norse klofi), from PIE root *gleubh- "to tear apart, cleave."

Its Germanic cognates mostly lurk in compounds that translate as "clove-leek," such as Old Saxon clufloc, Old High German chlobilouh. Dissimilation produced Dutch knoflook, German Knoblauch.

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sleave (v.)
"to separate or divide" (threads, strands, fibers), Old English -slæfan, from stem of -slifan "to separate, split, cleave," from Proto-Germanic *slifanan, perhaps related to the root of slip (v.). Compare German Schleife "a loop, knot, noose." Related: Sleaved; sleaving. As a noun, "knotted, tangled silk or thread," 1590s, from the verb; this is the word in Shakespeare's rauel'd Sleeue of Care ("Macbeth").
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*tem- 
also *temə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut."

It forms all or part of: anatomy; atom; contemplate; contemplation; diatom; dichotomy; -ectomy; entomolite; entomology; entomophagous; epitome; phlebotomy; temple (n.1) "building for worship;" tmesis; tome; -tomy; tonsorial; tonsure.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek temnein "to cut," tomos "volume, section of a book," originally "a section, piece cut off;" Old Church Slavonic tina "to cleave, split;" Middle Irish tamnaim "I cut off," Welsh tam "morsel."
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