Etymology
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casbah (n.)
the old city or citadel of a North African city, 1738, from French casbah, from North African Arabic dialect kasba "fortress."
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metropolitan (adj.)

early 15c., "belonging to an (ecclesiastical) metropolis," from Late Latin metropolitanus, from Greek metropolites "resident of a city," from metropolis (see metropolitan (n.)). Meaning "residing in or connected with a chief or capital city" is from 1550s. In reference to underground city railways, it is attested from 1867.

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Big Apple (n.)
"New York City," 1909 (but popularized by 1970s tourism promotion campaign), apparently from jazz musicians' use of apple for any city, especially a Northern one.
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Syracuse 
city in Sicily, founded as a Corinthian colony, and with a name traceable to 8c. B.C.E., from a pre-Hellenic word, perhaps Phoenician serah "to feel ill," in reference to its location near a swamp. The city in New York, U.S., was named 1825 for the classical city.
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urban (adj.)
"characteristic of city life, pertaining to cities or towns," 1610s (but rare before 1830s), from Latin urbanus "of or pertaining to a city or city life; in Rome," also "in city fashion, polished, refined, cultivated, courteous," but also sometimes "witty, facetious, bold, impudent;" as a noun, "city dweller," from urbs (genitive urbis) "city, walled town," a word of unknown origin.

The word gradually emerged in this sense as urbane became restricted to manners and styles of expression. In late 20c. American English gradually acquiring a suggestion of "African-American." Urban renewal, euphemistic for "slum clearance," is attested from 1955, American English. Urban sprawl recorded by 1958. Urban legend attested by 1980.
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Linzertorte (n.)
kind of jam-filled tart, 1906, from German Linzertorte, from Linzer (adj.) "of Linz," the city in Austria, + torte "tart" (see torte). The city name probably is ultimately from the Germanic root for "lime tree."
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A.U.C. 
as an abbreviation in Roman history in reckoning of dates it represent either ab urbe condita (q.v.) "from the founding of the city" or Anno Urbis Conditae "in the year of the founded city," from ablative of annus "year" (see annual (adj.)) + genitive of urbs "city" (see urban) + genitive of condita, fem. of conditus, past participle of condere "to set up, put together" (see abscond)
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Astyanax 

son of Hector and Andromache in the "Iliad," a Greek name, literally "lord of the city," from asty "city" (see asteism) + anax "chief, lord, master." Also the epithet of certain gods.

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policlinic (n.)

1827, originally, "clinic held in a private house" (instead of a hospital), from German Poliklinik, from Greek polis "city" (see polis) + Klinik, from French clinique (see clinic). Later "a clinic in a city not attached to a hospital."

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urbanity (n.)

1530s, from French urbanité (14c.) and directly from Latin urbanitatem (nominative urbanitas) "city life; life in Rome; refinement, city fashion or manners, elegance, courtesy," also "wit, raillery, trickery," from urbanus (see urban).

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