Etymology
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beef up (v.)

"add strength," 1941, from college slang, from beef (n.) in slang sense of "muscle-power" (1851).

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clean-up (n.)

also cleanup, 1856, "act of cleaning up,  a general cleaning," from clean + up. Meaning "a profit" is recorded from 1878. Verbal phrase clean up "make a large profit" is from 1929. The adjective, in the baseball sense, is recorded by 1910 in reference to the hitter who bats fourth in the lineup: His job is to drive in runs by scoring the players who hit before him and thus "clean up" the bases.

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heads-up (adj.)

"clever, alert," 1926, from warning cry "heads up!" (i.e. "look up!"). As a noun, "a notification, a warning," by 1988.

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push-up (n.)

also pushup, type of physical exercise (originally done on parallel bars), 1893, from the verbal phrase (by 1660s); see push (v.) + up (adv.). As an adjective, "that pushes up or may be pushed up," from 1892; of bras from 1957. Related: Push-ups

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paste-up (n.)

1930, in printing, "a plan of a page with the position of text, illustrations, etc. indicated," from verbal phrase; see paste (v.) + up (adv.).

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close-up (n.)

1913, in photography, etc.; see close (adv.) + up (adv.).

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set-up (n.)

1890, "arrangement," from the verbal phrase set up, which is attested from c. 1200 as "place in an erect position, place upright, make ready for use;" from set (v.) + up (adv.). From 19c. also "a favorable arrangement of the balls in billiards, etc., especially when left by one player for the next."

The verbal phrase is from 1520s as "begin business or enterprise." It also can or once could mean "to establish, found" (early 15c.), "make (a hawk) perch upright" (late 15c.), and "put (drinks, etc.) before customers or other patrons as a treat" (1880).

It is attested from 1950 (originally in pugilism) as "to bring (someone) to a vulnerable position, put (someone) in a position to be knocked down." It is attested by 1965 as "to contrive, plot." To set (someone) up "provide (someone) with means" is from 1520s. The adjective set-up "established" is attested by c. 1600.

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shake-up (n.)

also shakeup, 1847, "a shaking or stirring up;" 1899, "reorganization;" from the verbal phrase; see shake (v.) + up (adv.). Also in colloquial use, "a commotion, disturbance" (1880s). The verbal phrase shake up is attested from 1753 as "to shake together for the purposes of combining;" by 1833 as "to loosen and restore (a pillow, etc.) to proper condition by shaking;" and by 1884 as "upset the nerves, agitate" on the notion of "jar thoroughly in such a way as to damage or impair."

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wake-up (n.)

something that brings one to alertness or out of sleep, 1965, often in the 1960s in reference to a shot of heroin in the morning. Phrase wake-up call is attested from 1968, originally a call one received from the hotel desk in the morning. Verbal phrase wake up is from 1530s; earlier the adverb was out (late 14c.)

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hard-up (adj.)

"in difficulties," especially "short of money," 1821, slang; it was earlier a nautical expression, in reference to steering.

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