Etymology
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Pyongyang 

North Korean capital, from Korean p'yong "flat" + yang "land."

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Kathmandu 

Nepalese capital, from Nepalese Kathmandu, from kath "wooden" + mandu "temple."

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majuscule (adj.)

1704, of a letter, "capital;" 1738 as a noun, "a capital letter," from French majuscule (16c.), from Latin maiuscula (littera), fem. of maiusculus "somewhat larger, somewhat greater," diminutive of maior (see major (adj.)).

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Beirut 

Lebanese capital, from Hebrew, literally "the wells," from be'erot, plural of be'er "well."

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Phnom Penh 

Cambodian capital, literally "mountain of plenty," from Cambodian phnom "mountain, hill" + penh "full."

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Birmingham 

industrial city in central England, 1086, Bermingehame, literally "homestead of the place (or people) named for Beorma, a forgotten Anglo-Saxon person, whose name probably is a shortening of Beornmund. The Birmingham in Alabama, U.S., was founded 1871 as an industrial center and named for the English city.

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Rabat 

Moroccan capital, from Arabic ar-ribat, from ribat "fortified monastery."

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Sens 

city in north-central France, Roman Senones, the capital of the Gaulish people of the same name.

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capitalistic (adj.)

"of or pertaining to capital or capitalists," 1870; see capitalist + -ic.

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capitalism (n.)

1854, "condition of having capital;" from capital (n.1) + -ism. The meaning "political/economic system which encourages capitalists" is recorded from 1872 and originally was used disparagingly by socialists. The meaning "concentration of capital in the hands of a few; the power or influence of large capital" is from 1877.

"Capital" may be most briefly described as wealth producing more wealth; and "capitalism" as the system directing that process. This latter term came into general use during the second half of the 19th century as a word chiefly signifying the world-wide modern system of organizing production and trade by private enterprise free to seek profit and fortune by employing for wages the mass of human labour. There is no satisfactory definition of the term, though nothing is more evident than the thing. [J.L. Garvin, "Capitalism" in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1929] 
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