Etymology
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hereby (adv.)
mid-13c., "near here, nearby," from here + by (prep.). Meaning "by means of this" is from early 14c. Compare Dutch hierbij, German hierbei.
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thereby (adv.)
Old English þærbig "thus, by means of or because of that;" see there + by. Similar formation in Old Frisian therbi, Middle Low German darbi, German dabei, Dutch daarbij.
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nearby (adv.)

also near-by, "close at hand, not far off," late 14c., from near (adv.) + by (adv.). As a preposition from mid-15c.; as an adjective by 1858. Middle English also had ner-honde "near-hand; near in space or time" (c. 1300).

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Carnaby Street (n.)
street in Soho, London (Westminster), in mid-1960s lined with fashionable boutiques and clothing shops, hence used figuratively from 1964 for "(contemporary) English stylishness." It was named for Karnaby House, built 1683, from a surname or transferred from Carnaby in Yorkshire, which is from a Scandinavian personal name + -by (see by).
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because (conj.)
late 14c., from phrase bi cause, introducing a subordinate clause or phrase, "by cause, for the reason that," from by (prep.) + cause (n.). Modeled on French par cause. Originally often followed by that or why. As an adverb, "by reason, on account" (with of), from late 14c. Clipped form cause (sometimes 'cause) is attested in writing by mid-15c.
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betwixt (prep., adv.)
Old English betweox "between, in the space that separates, among, amidst, meanwhile," from bi- "by" (see by) + tweox "for two," from Proto-Germanic *twa "two" (from PIE root *dwo- "two") + *-isk "-ish." With unetymological -t that first appeared in Old English and became general after c. 1500. Compare amidst. Betwixen also was a variant in Old and Middle English.
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abaft (adv.)

"in or farther toward the back part (of a ship)," as opposed to forward, 1590s, from Middle English on baft (late 13c.) "back, behind, to the rear," from Old English on bæftan. For first element, see a- (1). The second component is itself a compound of be "by" (see by) and æftan "aft" (see aft). The word has been saved by the sailors (the stern being the "after" part of a vessel), the lubbers having left it in Middle English.

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behind (adv., prep.)

Old English behindan "at the back of, after," from bi "by" (see by) + hindan "from behind" (see hind (adj.)). The prepositional sense emerged in Old English. Figurative sense "not so far advanced, not on equality with" is from c. 1200. Euphemistic noun meaning "backside of a person" is from 1786. To do something behind (someone's) back "clandestinely" is from late 14c. Phrase behind the times is by 1826. Behind the scenes (1711) is from the theater; figurative sense attested by 1779.

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beleaguer (v.)
1580s, "besiege, surround, blockade," literal and figurative, from Dutch or Low German belegeren "to besiege," from be- "around" (from Proto-Germanic *bi- "around, about;" see by) + legeren "to camp," from leger "bed, camp, army, lair," from Proto-Germanic *legraz-, from PIE *legh-ro-, suffixed form of root *legh- "to lie down, lay." A word from the Flemish Wars (cognates: Swedish belägra, Dutch belegeren "besiege," German Belagerung "siege"). Spelling influenced by league. Related: Beleaguered; beleaguering.
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but (adv., prep.)

Old English butan, buton "unless; with the exception of; without, outside," from West Germanic *be-utan, a compound of *be- "by" (see by) + *utana "out, outside; from without," from ut "out" (see out (adv.)). Not used as a conjunction until late Old English, "on the contrary." Senses attested in early Middle English include "however, yet; no more than." As an introductory expression, early 13c. As a noun, "an objection, an exception" from late 14c.

Som man preiseth his neighebore by a wikked entente, foralwey he maketh a 'but' at the laste ende, that is digne of moore blame than worth is al the preisynge. [Chaucer, "Parson's Tale"]
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