clique (n.)

1711, "an exclusive party of persons; a small set, especially one associating to arrogate power or privilege," from obsolete French clique, which meant originally (14c.) "a sharp noise," also "latch, bolt of a door," from Old French cliquer "click, clatter, crackle, clink," 13c., echoic. Apparently this word was at one time treated in French as the equivalent of claque (q.v.) and partook of that word's theatrical sense.

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anschluss (n.)
1924 as a German word in English, from German Anschluß, "connection; addition; junction," literally "joining, union," from anschließen "to join, annex," from an "at, to, toward" (from Old High German ana- "on;" see on) + schließen "to shut, close, lock, bolt; contract" (a marriage); see slot (n.2). Specifically the Pan-Germanic proposal to unite Germany and Austria, accomplished in 1938.
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hyperbole (n.)
"obvious exaggeration in rhetoric," early 15c., from Latin hyperbole, from Greek hyperbole "exaggeration, extravagance," literally "a throwing beyond," from hyper- "beyond" (see hyper-) + bole "a throwing, a casting, the stroke of a missile, bolt, beam," from bol-, nominative stem of ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach"). Rhetorical sense is found in Aristotle and Isocrates. Greek had a verb, hyperballein, "to throw over or beyond."
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remnant (n.)

"remaining part or quality, that which is left or remains," late 14c., contraction of remenant, remanent, remenaunt (c. 1300) "the remainder," from Old French remanant "rest, remainder, surplus," noun use of present participle of remanoir "to remain" (see remain (v.)).

Specific sense of "end of a piece of ribbon, drapery, cloth, etc." (that which remains after the last cutting of a bolt or web) is recorded from mid-15c. As an adjective, "remaining, left," 1540s. An Old English word for "remnant" was endlaf.

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serried (adj.)

"pressed close together, compacted in regular lines," 1667 (in "Paradise Lost"), probably a past-participle adjective from serry "to press close together" (1580s), a military term, from French serre "close, compact" (12c.), past participle of serrer "press close, fasten," from Vulgar Latin *serrare "to bolt, lock up," from Latin sera "a bolt, bar, cross-bar." It would be a parallel verb, based on a noun, to classical Latin serere "attach, join; arrange, line up," and, presumably, like it, from PIE root *ser- (2) "to line up."

Later use of serried is due to Scott, who linked it with phalanx.

The stubborn spearmen still made good
Their dark impenetrable wood,
Each stepping where his comrade stood,
The instant that he fell.
No thought was there of dastard fight ;
Link'd in the serried phalanx tight,
Groom fought like noble, squire like knight,
As fearlessly and well ;
[from "Marmion: A Tale of Flodden Field"]
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locket (n.)
mid-14c., "iron cross-bar of a window," from Old French loquet "door-handle, bolt, latch, fastening" (14c.), diminutive of loc "lock, latch," from Frankish or some other Germanic source (compare Old Norse lok "fastening, lock;" see lock (n.1)). Meaning "little ornamental case with hinged cover" (containing a lock of hair, miniature portrait, etc.) first recorded 1670s. Italian lucchetto also is from Germanic.
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clavicle (n.)

"collarbone," 1610s, from French clavicule "collarbone" (16c.), also "small key," from Medieval Latin clavicula "collarbone" (used c. 980 in a translation of Avicenna), special use of classical Latin clavicula, literally "small key, bolt," diminutive of clavis "key" (from PIE root *klau- "hook"); in the anatomical sense a loan-translation of Greek kleis "key, collarbone," which is from the same PIE source. So called supposedly from its function as the "fastener" of the shoulder. Related: Clavicular.

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rivet (n.)

c. 1300, "cinch on a nail;" c. 1400, "short metal pin or bolt inserted through a hole at the junction of two or more metal pieces," the point then hammered broad to hold them together; from Old French rivet "nail, rivet," from river "to clench, fix, fasten," which is of uncertain origin; possibly from Middle Dutch wriven "turn, grind," and thus related to rive (v.). Or the English word might be directly from Middle Dutch.

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bayonet (n.)
1610s, originally a type of flat dagger; as a soldiers' steel stabbing weapon fitted to the muzzle of a firearm, from 1670s, from French baionnette (16c.), said to be from Bayonne, city in Gascony where supposedly they first were made; or perhaps it is a diminutive of Old French bayon "crossbow bolt." The city name is from Late Latin baia "bay" (which was borrowed into Basque from Spanish) + Basque on "good." As a verb from c. 1700.
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detente (n.)

1908 as a political term, "an easing of hostility or tensions between countries," a borrowing of French détente "loosening, slackening," from Vulgar Latin *detendita, fem. past participle of Latin detendere "loosen, release," from de "from, away" (see de-) + tendere "stretch" (from PIE root *ten- "to stretch"). The reference is to a "relaxing" in a political situation.

Treated as a French word in English until mid-20c. The French word was earlier borrowed as detent (1680s) "catch which regulates the strike in a clock" (a French extended use of the word in its secondary sense "catch of a crossbow," which releases the tension in the string and discharges the bolt).

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