"pertaining to a nail or claw," 1834, from Latin unguis "a claw, nail of the finger or toe;" cognate with Greek onyx, Old English nægel, Old Norse nagl "nail;" see nail (n.).
"vigorous, big, strong," 1570s, present-participle adjective from bounce (v.).
late 14c., "numeral below 10," from Latin digitus "finger or toe" (also with secondary meanings relating to counting and numerals), considered to be related to dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly"). The numerical sense is because numerals under 10 were counted on fingers. The "finger or toe" sense in English is attested from 1640s.
"big, clumsy," 1690s (through 18c. usually with fellow), from hulk (n.).
"long-pointed toe of a shoe," mid-15c., from Old French Poulaine, literally "Poland," hence "in the Polish fashion." The style was supposed in Western Europe to have originated there. Compare Cracow.
1540s, "a drink, liquor," later "big or hearty drink of liquor" (1620s), of unknown origin.