Etymology
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Salmonella (n.)

1913, the genus name, coined 1900 in Modern Latin by Joseph Lignières, French-born Argentine bacteriologist, in reference to U.S. veterinary surgeon Daniel E. Salmon (1850-1914), who isolated a type of the bacteria in 1885.

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Yersinia 

bacteria genus that includes the species that causes the bubonic plague (Y. pestis), named for Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin, who, with Kitasato Shibasaburo, first identified it in 1894. It was first named Pasteurella pestis; the modern name came about during a reclassification in 1944.

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lysozyme 
type of immune-system enzyme found in tears, saliva, egg-whites, etc., 1922, named by its discoverer, Alexander Fleming (six years before he discovered penicillin), who coined it from lyso- "loosening, dissolving" + suffix from enzyme. So called because it attack bacteria cell walls.
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plaque (n.)

1848, "ornamental plate or tablet," from French plaque "metal plate, coin" (15c.), perhaps through Flemish placke "small coin," from Middle Dutch placke "disk, patch, stain," related to German Placken "spot, patch" (compare placard). Meaning "deposit on walls of arteries" is attested by 1891; that of "bacteria deposits on teeth" is by 1898.

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chlamydia (n.)

type of genital infection, 1984, from the name of the bacteria that causes it (1966), which is formed from a Latinized combining form of Greek khlamys (genitive khlamydos) "short mantle, upper garment for men, military cloak," which is of unknown origin, + abstract noun ending -ia. Said to be so called due to its ability to "cloak" the nuclei of infected cells. Related: chlamydial.

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penicillin (n.)

antibiotic agent active against bacteria but harmless to most persons, 1929, coined in English by Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), who first recognized its antibiotic properties, from Modern Latin Penicillium notatum (1867), the name of the mould from which it was first obtained, from Latin penicillus "paintbrush" (see pencil (n.)), in reference to the shape of the mould cells.

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rickettsia (n.)

parasitic micro-organism, 1919, from German, coined 1916 in Modern Latin by H. da Rocha-Lima in honor of U.S. pathologist H.T. Ricketts (1871-1910), who first identified it in 1909 and died of typhus as a result of his contact with it, + abstract noun ending -ia. The bacteria causes typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, but is unrelated by pathology or etymology to rickets (q.v.), which is the result of vitamin D deficiency. The surname is a development from Rickard, variant of Richard, or else from the diminutive form Ricot.

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aerobic (adj.)

"able to live or living only in the presence of oxygen, requiring or using free oxygen from the air," 1875, after French aérobie (n.), coined 1863 by Louis Pasteur in reference to certain bacteria; from Greek aero- "air" (see aero-) + bios "life" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live"). Aerobian and aerobious also were used in English. Hence aerobe "type of micro-organism which lives on oxygen from the air." The meaning "pertaining to aerobics is from 1968.

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staphylococcus (n.)
(plural staphylococci), 1887, Modern Latin, the genus name, coined (on model of streptococcus) in 1882 by Scottish surgeon and bacteriologist Alexander Ogston (1844-1929). The first element is from Greek staphyle "bunch of grapes," which possibly is from PIE *stabh-, variant of *stebh- "post, stem; to support" (see staff (n.)). The second element is Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos "berry, grain" (see cocco-). So called because the bacteria usually bunch together in irregular masses.
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culture (n.)
Origin and meaning of culture

mid-15c., "the tilling of land, act of preparing the earth for crops," from Latin cultura "a cultivating, agriculture," figuratively "care, culture, an honoring," from past participle stem of colere "to tend, guard; to till, cultivate" (see colony). Meaning "the cultivation or rearing of a crop, act of promoting growth in plants" (1620s) was transferred to fish, oysters, etc., by 1796, then to "production of bacteria or other microorganisms in a suitable environment" (1880), then "product of such a culture" (1884).

The figurative sense of "cultivation through education, systematic improvement and refinement of the mind" is attested by c. 1500; Century Dictionary writes that it was, "Not common before the nineteenth century, except with strong consciousness of the metaphor involved, though used in Latin by Cicero." Meaning "learning and taste, the intellectual side of civilization" is by 1805; the closely related sense of "collective customs and achievements of a people, a particular form of collective intellectual development" is by 1867.

For without culture or holiness, which are always the gift of a very few, a man may renounce wealth or any other external thing, but he cannot renounce hatred, envy, jealousy, revenge. Culture is the sanctity of the intellect. [William Butler Yeats, journal, 7 March, 1909]

Slang culture vulture "one voracious for culture" is from 1947. Culture shock "disorientation experienced when a person moves to a different cultural environment or an unfamiliar way of life" is attested by 1940. Ironic or contemptuous spelling kulchur is attested from 1940 (Pound), and compare kultur.

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