Etymology
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Baluchistan 
historical country or region east of Persia between Afghanistan and the Arabian Sea, now forming southwestern Pakistan, from the people-name Baluchi (in English from 1610s) + -stan.
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Band-Aid (n.)
trademark name (Johnson & Johnson) for a stick-on gauze pad or strip, by 1922. See band (n.1) + aid (n.). The British equivalent was Elastoplast. Figurative sense of "temporary or makeshift solution to a problem, pallative" (often lower case, sometimes bandaid) is attested by 1968; as an adjective in this sense, by 1970.
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Baphomet 
name of the idol which the Templars were accused of worshipping, regarded as a corruption of Mahomet (see Muhammad), "a name which took strange shapes in the Middle Ages" [Century Dictionary]. Related: Baphometic.
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Bar Mitzvah 
1842, in Judaism, "male person who has completed his 13th year" and thus reached the age of religious responsibility; Hebrew, literally "son of command." As a name for the ceremony itself, by 1917.
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Barabbas 
biblical masc. proper name, Greek Barabbas, from Aramaic (Semitic) barabba, "son of the father," or "son of the master." In Hebrew, it would be ben abh. In the Crucifixion story, the name of the prisoner freed instead of Jesus at the crowd's insistence.
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Barbara 
fem. proper name, from Latin, fem. of barbarus "strange, foreign, barbarous," from Greek barbaros (see barbarian (n.)). For women, unlike men, the concept of "alien" presumably could be felt as "exotic" and thus make an appealing name. Popularized as a Christian name by the legend of Saint Barbara, early 4c. martyr, whose cult flourished from 7c. The common Middle English form was Barbary. A top 10 name in popularity for girls born in the U.S. between 1927 and 1958.
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Barbary 
c. 1300, "foreign lands" (especially non-Christian lands), from Latin barbaria "foreign country," from barbarus "strange, foreign" (see barbarian (n.)). Meaning "Saracen nations on coastal North Africa" is attested from 1590s, via French (Old French barbarie), from Arabic Barbar, Berber, ancient Arabic name for the inhabitants of North Africa beyond Egypt.

Perhaps a native name, perhaps an Arabic word, from barbara "to babble confusedly," but this might be ultimately from Greek barbaria. "The actual relations (if any) of the Arabic and Gr[eek] words cannot be settled; but in European langs. barbaria, Barbarie, Barbary, have from the first been treated as identical with L. barbaria, Byzantine Gr[eek] barbaria land of barbarians" [OED].
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Barbie 
1959, trademark name (reg. U.S.). Supposedly named after the daughter of its creator, U.S. businesswoman Ruth Handler (1916-2002); see Barbara.
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Barcelona 
city in Spain, said to have been named for Carthaginian general Hamlicar Barca, who is supposed to have founded it 3c. B.C.E.
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Barnabas 
surname of Joseph the Levite of Cyprus (Acts iv.36), literally "son of exhortation," from Aramaic (Semitic) bar "son" + nabha "prophecy, exhortation." St. Barnabas' Day (colloquially St. Barnaby), June 11, in the Old Style calendar was reckoned the longest day of the year (Barnaby the Bright).
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