early 15c., repugnaunt, "hostile, opposed; contrary, inconsistent, contradictory," from Old French repugnant "contradictory, opposing" or directly from Latin repugnantem (nominative repugnans), present participle of repugnare "to resist, fight back, oppose; disagree, be incompatible," from re- "back, against, in opposition" (see re-) + pugnare "to fight" (from PIE root *peuk- "to prick").
The meaning "distasteful, objectionable" is from 1777; that of "offensive, loathsome, exciting aversion" is by 1879.
early 15c., repugnaunce, "logical contradiction, inconsistency; incompatibility; resistance, opposition"(senses now obsolete), from Old French repugnance "opposition, resistance" (13c.) or directly from Latin repugnantia "incompatibility," from stem of repugnare "resist, disagree, be incompatible," from re- "back" (see re-) + pugnare "to fight" (from PIE root *peuk- "to prick"). The meaning "mental opposition or antagonism, aversion, strong dislike" is from 1640s. Related: Repugnancy.
early 15c., "to drive away, remove, quench" (a sense now obsolete), from Old French repeller and directly from Latin repellere "to drive back," from re- "back" (see re-) + pellere "to drive, strike" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive").
The sense of "encounter (an invader, etc.) with effectual resistance, resist, oppose" is from mid-15c. The meaning "to affect (a person) with distaste or aversion" is by 1817. Related: Repelled; repelling.
late 14c., idroforbia, "dread of water, aversion to swallowing water," a symptom of rabies in man (sometimes used for the disease itself), from Late Latin hydrophobia, from Greek hydrophobos "dreading water," from hydr-, stem of hydor "water" (from suffixed form of PIE root *wed- (1) "water; wet") + phobos "dread, fear" (see phobia). So called because human sufferers show aversion to water and have difficulty swallowing it. In Old English as wæterfyrhtness. Related: Hydrophobe.
The term hydrophobia, which has been so generally applied to the Lyssa canina, has been deservedly reprobated, because the "dread of water," the literal meaning of the word, is not a pathognomonic mark of the disease. The older writers used the terms aerophobia, or a "dread of air," and pantophobia, or a "fear of all things," as appropriate names for the disease, because the impression cold air sometimes excites terror, and the disorder is marked, by a singular degree of general timidity and distrust. ["Encyclopaedia Londinensis," 1823]
Old English hatian "regard with extreme ill-will, have a passionate aversion to, treat as an enemy," from Proto-Germanic *haton (source also of Old Saxon haton, Old Norse hata, German hassen, Gothic hatan "to hate"), from PIE root *kad- "sorrow, hatred" (source also of Avestan sadra- "grief, sorrow, calamity;" Greek kēdos "care, trouble, sorrow, mourning, funeral rites;" Welsh cas "pain, anger"). Related: Hated; hating. French haine (n.), haïr (v.) are from Germanic.
c. 1400, "to loathe, regard with repugnance, dislike intensely," literally "to shrink back with horror or dread," from Latin abhorrere "shrink back from, have an aversion for, shudder at," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + horrere "tremble at, shudder," literally "to bristle, be shaggy," from PIE *ghers- "start out, stand out, rise to a point, bristle" (see horror).
Formerly also "fill (someone) with horror or loathing" (16c.). In Latin it was less intense: "be remote from, vary from, differ from, be out of harmony with." Related: Abhorred; abhorring.
1540s (implied in disliking), "be displeased with, regard with some aversion or displeasure," a hybrid which ousted native mislike as the opposite of like (v.). In common with disgust, it sometimes reversed the direction of its action and meant (in this case) "annoy, vex, displease" (1570s), but this sense is archaic or obsolete. Related: Disliked; disliking. The noun sense of "feeling of being displeased" is from 1590s. English in 16c. also had dislove "hate, cease to love," but it did not survive.
1660s, risque, "hazard, danger, peril, exposure to mischance or harm," from French risque (16c.), from Italian risco, riscio (modern rischio), from riscare "run into danger," a word of uncertain origin.
The Englished spelling is recorded by 1728. Spanish riesgo and German Risiko are Italian loan-words. The commercial sense of "hazard of the loss of a ship, goods, or other properties" is by 1719; hence the extension to "chance taken in an economic enterprise."
Paired with run (v.) from 1660s. Risk aversion is recorded from 1942; risk factor from 1906; risk management from 1963; risk-taker from 1892.
1640s, "act of struggling against;" 1660s, "unwillingness, aversion;" from the obsolete verb reluct "to strive, struggle, or rebel against" (15c.), from Latin reluctari, reluctare "to struggle against, resist, make opposition," from re- "back, against, in opposition" (see re-) + luctari "to struggle, wrestle," from Proto-Italic *lukto-, from PIE *lug-to- "bent" (source also of Old Irish foloing "supports," inloing "connects;" Middle Welsh ellwng- "to set free;" Greek lygos "withy, pliant twig," lygizein "to bend, twist;" Gothic galukan "to shut," uslukan "to open;" Old English locc "twist of hair."
Related: Reluctancy (1620s.); Bacon (1605) has reluctation.