Etymology
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antecedence (n.)
1650s, "fact or act of coming before (another or others) in time, place, or order," from Latin antecedens "a going before" (see antecedent). From 1660s in specific sense in astronomy, "apparent contrary motion of a planet" (from east to west). Related: Antecedency (1590s).
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botany (n.)

"the science of plants," 1690s, from botanic. The -y is from astronomy, etc. Botany Bay in Australia so called by Capt. Cook (1770) on account of the great variety of plants found there; later it was a convict settlement (1778).

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menstrual (adj.)

late 14c., "pertaining to menses of females," from Old French menstruel and directly from Latin menstrualis "monthly," especially "of or having monthly courses," from menstruus "of a month, every month, monthly, pertaining to a month," from mensis "month" (see moon (n.)). Occasionally, in astronomy, "monthly" (1590s).

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node (n.)

early 15c., "a knot or lump," from Latin nodus "knot" (from PIE root *ned- "to bind, tie"). Originally borrowed c. 1400 in Latin form, meaning "lump in the flesh." Meaning "point of intersection" (originally in astronomy, of planetary orbits with the ecliptic) is recorded from 1660s.

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semidiurnal (adj.)

also semi-diurnal, "pertaining to or accomplished in half a day," 1590s, in astronomy, defining the half day as six hours (half the time between the rising and setting of a body); see semi- + diurnal. By 1794 in reference to tides, "occurring every 12 hours."

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evection (n.)

1650s, "act of carrying out or away," from Late Latin evectionem (nominative evectio) "a carrying upward, a flight," from Latin evehere, from assimilated form of ex "out of, from within" (see ex-) + vehere "to carry" (from PIE root *wegh- "to go, move, transport in a vehicle"). Astronomy sense, "second lunar inequality,"  is from 1706.

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informed (adj.)
1540s, "current in information," past-participle adjective from inform (v.). In 16c.-17c. it also could mean "unformed, formless," from in- (1) "not, opposite of," and was used in astronomy of stars that did not form part of the visual pattern of a constellation but were within it.
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deferent (adj.)

1620s, "bearing off or away," from French déférent (16c.), from Latin deferentem (nominative deferens), present participle of deferre "to carry down or away" (see defer (v.2)). Earlier in Middle English as a word in Ptolemaic astronomy (early 15c.) to explain the apparent motion of planets.

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darkness (n.)

Old English deorcnysse "absence of light," from dark (adj.) + -ness. The 10c. Anglo-Saxon treatise on astronomy uses þeostrum for "darkness." Figurative use for "sinfulness, wickedness" is from early 14c. From late 14c. as "obscurity," also "secrecy, concealment," also "blindness," physical, mental, or spiritual.

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elongation (n.)

c. 1400, elongacioun, in astronomy, "angular distance of a planet from the sun as it appears from the earth;" early 15c., "extension, spreading," from Medieval Latin elongationem (nominative elongatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Late Latin elongare "remove to a distance," from assimilated form of Latin ex "out" (see ex-) + longus "long" (see long (adj.)).

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