Etymology
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Kulturkampf (n.)
1879, originally in reference to the struggle (1872-86) between the German government and the Catholic Church over control of educational and ecclesiastical appointments, German, literally "struggle for culture," from Kultur + Kampf "combat, fight, struggle," from Old High German kampf (8c.), from Latin campus "field, battlefield" (see campus).
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confessional (n.)

"small stall in a Catholic church in which a priest sits to hear confession," 1727, from French confessional, from Medieval Latin confessionale, noun use of neuter of confessionalis (adj.), from past-participle stem of confiteri "to acknowledge" (see confess).

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breviary (n.)
1540s, "brief statement;" 1610s, "short prayer book used by Catholic priests;" from Latin breviarium "summary," noun use of neuter of adjective breviarius "abridged," from breviare "to shorten, abbreviate," from brevis "short" (from PIE root *mregh-u- "short").
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Westphalia 
former duchy of Germany; the treaties which ended the Thirty Years' War were signed there Oct. 24, 1648 (in Osnabrück and Münster). They established diplomatic protocol and ended the Catholic-Protestant military struggle in Europe. Related: Westphalian.
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probabilism (n.)

1719, in Catholic theology, the doctrine that when there are two probable opinions, each apparently resting on reason, it is lawful to follow the probable opinion which favors one's inclination; from French, from Latin probabilis (see probable) + -ism.

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soutane (n.)
"long, buttoned gown or frock with sleeves, outer garment of Roman Catholic ecclesiastics," 1838, from French soutane, from Old French sotane "undershirt," from Medieval Latin subtana "an under-cassock," from Latin subtus "beneath, under, below" (from PIE root *upo "under").
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vicar (n.)

early 14c., from Anglo-French vicare, Old French vicaire "deputy, second in command," also in the ecclesiastical sense (12c.), from Latin vicarius "a substitute, deputy, proxy," noun use of adjective vicarius "substituted, delegated," from vicis "change, interchange, succession; a place, position" (from PIE root *weik- (2) "to bend, to wind"). The original notion is of "earthly representative of God or Christ;" but also used in sense of "person acting as parish priest in place of a real parson" (early 14c.).

The original Vicar of Bray (in figurative use from 1660s) seems to have been Simon Allen, who held the benefice from c. 1540 to 1588, thus serving from the time of Henry VIII to Elizabeth I, being twice a Catholic and twice a Protestant but always vicar of Bray. The village is near Maidenhead in Berkshire.

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popery (n.)

"doctrines, customs, ceremonies, etc. of the Pope or the Roman Catholic Church," 1530s, a hostile coinage of the Reformation, from pope + -ery. Earlier, non-hostile words along the same sense lines were popedom (Old English) "the office or dignity of a Pope;" popehood (Old English papan-had) "condition of being Pope."

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Rhemish (adj.)

"of or pertaining to Rheims" (earlier English Rhemes), city in northeastern France (see Reims), 1580s; specifically in reference to an English translation of the New Testament by Roman Catholics at the English seminary college at Douai (College des Grands Anglais), a center for English Catholic refugees, published 1582.

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celibate (n.)

1610s, "state of celibacy" (especially as mandated to clergy in the Catholic church) from French célibat (16c.), from Latin caelibatus "state of being unmarried" (see celibacy). This was the only sense until early 19c.; the meaning "one who is sworn to celibacy" is from 1838. Other nouns in this sense were celibatarian, celibatist, celibian.

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