Etymology
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zucchetto (n.)
small, round skull-cap worn by dignitaries in the Catholic Church, 1853, from Italian zucchetta "a cap," originally diminutive of zucca "gourd, head," perhaps from Late Latin cucutia, of unknown origin.
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biretta (n.)
square cap worn by Catholic clergy, 1590s, from Italian beretta, from Late Latin birrus, birrum "large cloak with hood;" which is perhaps of Gaulish origin, or from Greek pyrros "flame-colored, yellow."
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Jansenism (n.)
1650s, in reference to doctrine of Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), Catholic bishop of Ypres, who maintained the perverseness and inability for good of the natural human will. The term is prominent in 17c.-18c. religious writing, often as a reproach. The surname is the Flemish equivalent of Johnson. Related: Jansenist.
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papist (n.)

1530s, "adherent of the pope, one who acknowledges the supreme authority of the Church of Rome," from French papiste, from papa "pope," from Church Latin papa (see pope). Historically usually a term of anti-Catholic opprobrium. Related: Papism.

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ex (n.)
1827, originally short for ex-Catholic; see ex-. Since 1929 as abbreviation for ex-wife, ex-husband, etc. Also used in some commercial compound words for "from, out of."
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probabilistic (adj.)

1855, in Catholic theology (see probabilism), from probabilist "one who holds the doctrine of probabilism" (1650s, from French probabiliste, 17c., from Latin probabilis, see probable) + -ic. Meaning "pertaining to probability, involving chance variations" is from 1951.

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Kulturkampf (n.)
1879, originally in reference to the struggle (1872-86) between the German government and the Catholic Church over control of educational and ecclesiastical appointments, German, literally "struggle for culture," from Kultur + Kampf "combat, fight, struggle," from Old High German kampf (8c.), from Latin campus "field, battlefield" (see campus).
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confessional (n.)

"small stall in a Catholic church in which a priest sits to hear confession," 1727, from French confessional, from Medieval Latin confessionale, noun use of neuter of confessionalis (adj.), from past-participle stem of confiteri "to acknowledge" (see confess).

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breviary (n.)
1540s, "brief statement;" 1610s, "short prayer book used by Catholic priests;" from Latin breviarium "summary," noun use of neuter of adjective breviarius "abridged," from breviare "to shorten, abbreviate," from brevis "short" (from PIE root *mregh-u- "short").
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charter school (n.)

older uses refer to schools in Ireland begun 1733 by the Charter Society to provide Protestant education to poor Catholic children. Modern use in U.S. began c. 1988, as an alternative to state-run public education.

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