Etymology
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DNA (n.)

also D.N.A., 1944, abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid (1931).

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chlorate (n.)

"salt of chloric acid," 1823; see chlorine + -ate (3)

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citrate (n.)

"salt of citric acid," 1794, from French citrate; see citric + -ate (3).

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purine (n.)

basic crystalline substance found in uric acid, caffeine, adenine, etc., 1898, from German purin (Fischer), said to be from Latin purum, neuter of purus "clean, pure" (see pure) + Modern Latin uricum "uric acid" (see urine) + chemical suffix -ine (2). Related: Purinergic.

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dopamine 

compound organic chemical, 1959, from DOPA, the amino acid (from first letter of elements of dioxyphenylalanine), + amine.

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lactate (n.)
salt of lactic acid, 1790, from French (1789), from stem of lactic + -ate (1).
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tannin (n.)
"tannic acid, vegetable substance capable of converting animal hide to leather," 1802, from French tannin (1798), from tan "crushed oak bark containing tannin" (see tan (v.)). Tannic acid first recorded 1836, from French acide tannique, inroduced 1834 by French chemist Théophile-Jules Pelouze (1807-1867).
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sorbic (adj.)
1815, in sorbic acid, so called because it was first isolated from the berries of the mountain ash (see sorb).
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amino- 
1887 as an element in compound words in chemistry, from combining form of amine. Amino acid is attested from 1898.
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histidine (n.)
complex amino acid, 1896, from German histidin; see histo- + chemical suffix -idine (see -ide + -ine (2)).
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