"return one accusation with another, charge an accuser with a like crime," c. 1600, from Medieval Latin recriminatus, past participle of recriminari "to make charges against," from Latin re- "back, again" (see re-) + criminari "to accuse," from crimen (genitive criminis) "a charge" (see crime). Related: Recriminated; recriminating.
"to accuse, bring charges against," 1794, from Medieval Latin inculpatus, past participle of inculpare "to reproach, blame, censure," from Latin in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + culpare "to blame," from culpa "fault." But inculpable (late 15c.) means "not culpable, free from blame," from Latin in- "not" (see in- (1)) + culpare.
"to scold vehemently," 1540s, from be- "thoroughly" + Middle English rate "to scold" (late 14c.), from Old French reter "accuse, blame," from Latin reputare "reflect upon, reckon, count over," from re- "repeatedly" (see re-) + putare "to judge, suppose, believe, suspect," originally "to clean, trim, prune" (from PIE root *pau- (2) "to cut, strike, stamp"). "Obsolete except in U.S." [OED 1st ed.], but it seems to have revived in Britain 20c. Related: Berated; berating.
late 14c., "to lay (a crime, duty, obligation, etc.) to the account of," from Old French imposer "put, place; impute, charge, accuse" (c. 1300), from assimilated form of in- "into, in" (from PIE root *en "in") + poser "put, place" (see pose (v.1)). From c. 1500 as "apply authoritatively." Sense of "lay on as a burden, inflict by force or authority" first recorded 1580s. Related: Imposed; imposer; imposing.
late 14c., araynen, "to call to account," also "to call up on a criminal charge," from Old French araisnier "speak to, address; accuse (in a law court)," from Vulgar Latin *arrationare, from Latin adrationare, from ad "to" (see ad-) + *rationare, from ratio "argumentation; reckoning, calculation," from rat-, past participle stem of reri "to reckon, calculate," also "think" (from PIE root *re- "to reason, count"). The unetymological -g- is a 16c. overcorrection based on reign, etc. Related: Arraigned; arraigning.
mid-14c., reprochen, "charge with a fault, censure severely," from Anglo-French repruchier, Old French reprochier "upbraid, blame, accuse, speak ill of," from reproche "blame, shame, disgrace" (see reproach (n.)). The sense of "rebuke, revile, abuse" is from 1510s. Related: Reproached; reproaching; reproachable.
To reproach a person is to lay blame upon him in direct address, and with feeling, to endeavor to shame him with what he has done. [Century Dictionary]
"to secure or fasten," from Old English belecgan, which, among other senses ("cover, invest, surround; afflict; accuse"), meant "to lay a thing about" (with other objects), from be- + lecgan "to lay" (from PIE root *legh- "to lie down, lay"). The only surviving sense is the nautical one of "coil a running rope round a cleat or pin to secure it" (also transferred to mountain-climbing), attested by 1540s; but this is possibly from Dutch cognate beleggen. Related: Belayed; belaying.
"to scold, chide vehemently, rebuke," late 14c., raten, probably from Old French rateir, variant of reter "to impute blame, accuse, find fault with," from Latin reputare "to count over, reflect," in Vulgar Latin, "to impute, blame," from re- "repeatedly" (see re-) + putare "to judge, suppose, believe, suspect" (originally "to clean, trim, prune," from PIE root *pau- (2) "to cut, strike, stamp"). Related: Rated; rating.
Old French reter also was borrowed into Middle English as retten "to blame" (c. 1300); also "to attribute, impute" (late 14c.), "to consider, think about" (late 14c.).