"an instinctive stretching of oneself, as upon awakening," 1610s, noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin pandiculari "to stretch oneself," from pandere "to stretch" (from nasalized form of PIE root *pete- "to spread"). Sometimes used inaccurately for "a yawning."
1630s, in Greek mythology, the name of the first mortal woman, made by Hephaestus and given as a bride to Epimetheus, from Greek Pandōra "all-gifted" (or perhaps "giver of all"), from pan- "all" (see pan-) + dōron "gift" (from PIE root *do- "to give").
Pandora's box (1570s) refers to her gift from Zeus, which was foolishly opened by Epimetheus, upon which all the contents escaped. They were said to be the host of human ills (escaping to afflict mankind), or, in a later version, all the blessings of the god (escaping to be lost), except Hope, which alone remained.
also pandoulde, etc., "pudding of bread and apples baked together," usually cooked with molasses," 1846, American English colloquial, of uncertain origin. It appears as the name of a character in a temperance story from 1839, and pandoodle is the name of some sort of dish available on a sailing ship in 1775.
mid-13c., "garment, cloak, mantle; a part of a garment;" later "side of a building, section of a wall," from Old French pan "section, piece, panel" (11c.) and directly from Latin pannum (nominative pannus) "piece of cloth, garment," possibly from PIE root *pan- "fabric" (source also of Gothic fana "piece of cloth," Greek pēnos "web," Old English fanna "flag"). De Vaan writes, "If the Gr. and Gm. words listed are related, they probably represent loanwords from an unknown source."
From late 14c. as "section of a wall," also "ornamental hanging, coverlet," and c. 1400 as "a bedspread." The general notion in the word is "distinct part or piece of a surface." Sense of "piece of glass inserted in a window" is attested by mid-15c.
"eulogy, laudation, praise bestowed upon some person, action, or character," c. 1600, from French panégyrique (1510s), from Latin panegyricus "public eulogy," originally an adjective, "for a public festival," from Greek panēgyrikos (logos) "(a speech) given in or addressed to a public assembly," from panēgyris "public assembly (especially in honor of a god)," from pan- "all" (see pan-) + agyris "place of assembly," Aeolic form of agora (see agora). Related: Panegyrical; panegyrist.
early 14c., "a piece of cloth," especially a rectangular piece, from Old French panel "piece of cloth, piece, saddle cushion" (Modern French panneau), from Vulgar Latin *pannellus, diminutive of Latin pannus "piece of cloth" (see pane).
Anglo-French legalese sense of "piece of parchment (cloth) listing the names of those summoned to serve upon a jury" led by late 14c. to the meaning "a jury selected for a trial." General sense of "persons called on to advise, judge, discuss," etc. is from 1570s. Sense of "more or less distinct part of the surface of a wall, door, etc." is recorded from c. 1600.
Panel-house (said to be from 1840s; popular from 1870s) was old slang for a disreputable place (typically a bordello) with panneled rooms. At least one panel could be slid back to allow for thefts from customers and other cheats. Hence panel-thief, panel-game, etc.
The requisites for a "panel house" in the proper sense, are,—a crafty, cunning street walker; a not less cunning and at the same time sturdy scoundrel—known in the slang of the business as a "Badger," and a room prepared specially for the purpose by having a small invisible opening, generally a noiselessly opening panel in the partition or entrance door, by which access to the place can be had from an adjoining room. These three requisites obtained, it becomes the duty of the panel-thief to find the fourth in any "greenhorn" that can be picked up on the streets and induced to come into the apartment. ["The Dark Side of New York Life and its Criminal Classes," 1873]
also paneling, "the making of panels; panels collectively," 1800, verbal noun from panel (v.).
Latin, literally "bread and circuses," supposedly coined by Juvenal and describing the cynical formula of the Roman emperors for keeping the masses content with ample food and entertainment.
Duas tantum res anxius optat, Panem et circenses [Juvenal, Sat. x.80].