Etymology
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watchdog (n.)
also watch-dog, c. 1600, from watch (v.) + dog (n.). Figurative sense is attested by 1845.
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watcher (n.)
late 14c. (early 13c. as a surname), agent noun from watch (v.).
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watchful (adj.)
c. 1500, waccheful, from watch (v.) + -ful. Related: Watchfulness.
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watchmaker (n.)
1620s, from watch (n.) in the "timepiece" sense + maker.
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watchman (n.)
also watch-man, c. 1400, "guard, sentinel, lookout" (late 12c. as a surname), figuratively "guardian, protector" (mid-15c.), from watch (n.) + man (n.). Also "person characterized by wakefulness" (mid-15c.).
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watchtower (n.)
also watch-tower, 1540s, from watch (v.) + tower (n.).
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watchword (n.)
also watch-word, c. 1400, "password," from watch (n.) in the military sense of "period of standing guard duty" + word (n.). In the sense of "motto, slogan" it dates from 1738.
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watch-work (n.)
1660s, from watch (n.) in the "timepiece" sense + work (n.).
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water (n.2)

measure of quality of a diamond, c. 1600, from water (n.1), perhaps as a translation of Arabic ma' "water," which also is used in the sense "luster, splendor."

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water (n.1)
Origin and meaning of water

Old English wæter, from Proto-Germanic *watr- (source also of Old Saxon watar, Old Frisian wetir, Dutch water, Old High German wazzar, German Wasser, Old Norse vatn, Gothic wato "water"), from PIE *wod-or, suffixed form of root *wed- (1) "water; wet."

To keep (one's) head above water in the figurative sense is recorded from 1742. Water cooler is recorded from 1846; water polo from 1884; water torture from 1928. Linguists believe PIE had two root words for water: *ap- and *wed-. The first (preserved in Sanskrit apah as well as Punjab and julep) was "animate," referring to water as a living force; the latter referred to it as an inanimate substance. The same probably was true of fire (n.).

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