"malicious joy in the misfortunes of others," 1922 as a word in English, German Schadenfreude, literally "damage-joy," from schaden "damage, harm, injury" (see scathe) + freude "joy," from Old High German frewida "joy," from fro "happy," literally "hopping for joy" (from Proto-Germanic *frawa-; see frolic).
What a fearful thing is it that any language should have a word expressive of the pleasure which men feel at the calamities of others; for the existence of the word bears testimony to the existence of the thing. And yet in more than one such a word is found. [Richard C. Trench, "On the Study of Words," 1852]
late 14c., "study or knowledge of the structure and function of the human body" (learned by dissection); c. 1400, "anatomical structure," from Old French anatomie and directly from Late Latin anatomia, from late Greek anatomia for classical anatome "dissection," literally "a cutting up," from ana "up" (see ana-) + temnein "to cut" (from PIE root *tem- "to cut").
"Dissection" (1540s), "mummy" (1580s), and "skeleton" (1590s) were primary senses of this word in Shakespeare's day; meaning "the science of the structure of organized bodies" predominated from 17c. Of persons, "the body," from 1590s. Often misdivided as an atomy or a natomy (see N).
The scyence of the Nathomy is nedefull and necessarye to the Cyrurgyen 
Meaning "one who cultivates and participates (in something) but does not pursue it professionally or with an eye to gain" (as opposed to professional) is from 1786, often with disparaging shades, "dabbler, dilettante," except in athletics, where the tinge formerly shaded the professional. As an adjective, by 1838.
late 14c., philologie, "love of learning and literature; personification of linguistic and literary knowledge," from Latin philologia "love of learning, love of letters, love of study, literary culture," from Greek philologia "love of discussion, learning, and literature; studiousness," in later use "learning" in a wider sense, from philo- "loving" (see philo-) + logos "word, speech" (see Logos).
Compare the sense evolution of Greek philologos, "fond of words, talkative," in Plato "fond of dialectic or argument," in Aristotle and Plutarch "fond of learning and literature," in Plotinus and Proclus "studious of words."
The meaning "science of language" is attested by 1716 (philologue "linguist" is from 1590s; philologer "linguistic scholar" is from 1650s); this confusing secondary sense has not been popular in the U.S., where linguistics is preferred. Related: Philological; philologic.
Philology reigned as king of the sciences, the pride of the first great modern universities—those that grew up in Germany in the eighteenth and earlier nineteenth centuries. Philology inspired the most advanced humanistic studies in the United States and the United Kingdom in the decades before 1850 and sent its generative currents through the intellectual life of Europe and America. It meant far more than the study of old texts. Philology referred to allstudies of language, of specific languages, and (to be sure) of texts. Its explorations ranged from the religion of ancient Israel through the lays of medieval troubadours to the tongues of American Indians—and to rampant theorizing about the origin of language itself. [James Turner, "Philology," 2014]
"the study of rivers," 1829, in "POTAMOLOGY : a Tabular Description of the Principal Rivers throughout the World,—their Rise, Course, Cities, &c., Tributary Streams, Length and Outfall into Oceans, Seas, or Lakes," compiled and printed by George Smallfield, from potamo- + -logy. Related: Potamological.
POTAMOLOGY—what is that? Why the science of Rivers, to be sure ; and a very good science it is ; and a very good word it is, to designate that science, coined out of sterling Greek, its two etymons flowing harmoniously together into a continued stream of sound, and well deserving to become a current expression. [The Monthly Repository and Review, January, 1829]
early 15c., phisical, "medicinal" (opposed to surgical), from Medieval Latin physicalis "of nature, natural," from Latin physica "study of nature" (see physic).
The meaning "pertaining to matter, of or pertaining to what is perceived by the senses" is from 1590s; the meaning "having to do with the body, corporeal, pertaining to the material part or structure of an organized being" (as opposed to mental or moral) is attested from 1780. The sense of "characterized by bodily attributes or activities, being or inclined to be bodily aggressive or violent" is attested from 1970. Physical education is recorded by 1838; the abbreviated form phys ed is by 1955. Physical therapy is from 1922. Related: Physically.
1835, American English, apparently a back-formation from the earlier-attested loafer (1830). Related: Loafed; loafing. The noun meaning "an act of loafing" is attested from 1855.
The term "loafing" is, of course, very vague. Its meaning, like that of its opposite, "work," depends largely on the user. The highly successful quarterback with an E in Greek is a loafer in his professor's eyes, while the idea of the professor's working, in spite of his voluminous researches on Mycenean Table Manners, would excite hoots of derision from the laborer that lays the drains before his study window. [Yale Literary Magazine, May 1908]
Latin substantia translates Greek ousia "that which is one's own, one's substance or property; the being, essence, or nature of anything." Meaning "any kind of corporeal matter" is first attested mid-14c. Sense of "the matter of a study, discourse, etc." first recorded late 14c.
"stone presenting a fossil footprint," 1841, from Latinized form of Greek ikhnos "a track, footprint" (which is of unknown origin) + -lite. Ichnite in the same sense is from 1854. Ichnology, "scientific study of fossil footprints," is from 1837.
So numerous have been the discoveries of fossil footmarks in Europe within a few years past, and so many species occur in this country, that it will be at least convenient to have them designated by some appropriate scientific terms, and to arrange them in systematic order. I propose the term Ichnolite ... to include them all and to be the name of the Class. [Edward Hitchcock, LL.D., "Final Report on the Geology of Massachusetts," 1841]
1590s, "one who is characterized by strict adherence to method," from method + -ist. With a capital M-, it refers to the Protestant religious denomination founded 1729 at Oxford University by John and Charles Wesley. The name had been used at least since 1686 for various new methods of worship; it was applied to the Wesleys by their fellow-students at Oxford for their methodical habits in study and religious life. Johnson (1755) describes them as "One of a new kind of puritans lately arisen, so called from their profession to live by rules and in constant method." Related: Methodism.