Etymology
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calumniation (n.)

"act of caluminating," 1540s, noun of action from calumniate (v.).

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calumniator (n.)

"one who falsely and knowingly accuses another of anything disgraceful or maliciously propagates false reports," 1560s, from Latin calumniator, agent noun from calumniari "to accuse falsely" (see calumniate (v.)). Related: Calumniatory.

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calumnious (adj.)

"slanderous, using calumny," late 15c., from Latin calumniosus, from calumnia "slander, false accusation" (see calumny). Related: Calumniously; calumniousness.

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calumny (n.)

mid-15c., "false accusation, slander," from Old French calomnie (15c.), from Latin calumnia "trickery, subterfuge, misrepresentation, malicious charge," from calvi "to trick, deceive."

According to de Vaan, PIE cognates include Greek kēlein "to bewitch, cast a spell," Gothic holon "to slander," Old Norse hol "praise, flattery," Old English hol "slander," holian "to betray," Old High German huolen "to deceive." The whole group is perhaps from the same root as call (v.). A doublet of challenge.

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Calvary 

name of the mount of the Crucifixion, late 14c., from Latin calvaria "skull," rendering Greek Kraniou topos, translating Aramaic gulgulta "place of the skull" (see Golgotha). Old English used Heafodpannan stow  as a loan-translation. Latin Calvaria is related to calvus "bald" (see Calvin).

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calve (v.)

"to bring forth a calf or calves," Old English cealfian, from cealf "calf" (see calf (n.1)). Of glaciers, "to lose a portion by an iceberg breaking off," 1837. Related: Calved; calving.

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Calvin 

surname, especially in reference to John Calvin (1509-1564), French Protestant leader and theologian, born Jean Caulvin. The surname is related to French Chauvin (compare chauvinism), from Latin Calvinus, a Roman cognomen, literally "bald," from calvus "bald," from PIE *kle-wo- "bald."

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Calvinism (n.)

1560s, "religious doctrines and theology of John Calvin" (1509-1564), French Protestant reformer and theologian. With -ism. Alternative form Calvinian was in use in 1566. Later extended broadly to positions he did not hold. Generalized association with stern moral codes and predestination is attested at least since 1853. Related: Calvinist; Calvinistic.

The peculiar characteristics of his system, as derived from his "Institutes," are his doctrines of original sin, namely, that we derive from Adam "not only the punishment, but also the pollution to which the punishment is justly due"; of freedom of the will, namely, that man "in his present state is despoiled of freedom of will and subject to a miserable slavery"; of grace, or that "the Lord both begins and completes the good work in us," and gives us "both will and power"; of predestination, or "the eternal decree of God, by which he has determined in himself what he would have become of every individual of mankind"; and of perseverance, or the doctrine that all the elect will certainly be saved. [Century Dictionary]
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Calypso 

sea nymph in the "Odyssey," literally "hidden, hider" (perhaps originally a death goddess) from Greek kalyptein "to cover, conceal," from PIE root *kel- (1) "to cover, conceal, save," which also is the source of English Hell. The type of West Indian song is so called from 1934, but the origin of the name is obscure.

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calypto- 

word-forming element meaning "hidden, covered," from Latinized form of Greek kalyptos "covered," from kalyptein "to cover, conceal," from PIE root *kel- (1) "to cover, conceal, save."

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