Etymology
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Heinie (n.)
also Heine, Hiney, 1904 as a typical name of a German man, North American slang, from pet form of common German masc. proper name Heinrich (see Henry). Brought to Europe in World War I by Canadian soldiers (British soldiers called the adversary Fritz).
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Fritz 
German familiar form of masc. proper name Friedrich; as a characteristic name for a German attested by 1883; very common in World War I. Phrase on the fritz "inoperative, not working properly" (1903) is American English slang, of unknown connection to the name; the earliest references suggest a theatrical origin.
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TWA 
formed May 16, 1928, as Transcontinental Air Transport, merged 1930 with Western Air Express to form Transcontinental and Western Air Inc. (TWA). Name changed to Trans World Airlines 1950, but the moniker remained the same. Its last remnants were bought out by rival American Airlines in April 2001.
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Kate 
fem. proper name, pet form of Katherine. In World War II it was the Allies' nickname for the standard type of torpedo bomber used by the Imperial Japanese Navy. Kate Greenaway in reference to a style of children's clothing is from 1902, from the work of the English illustrator of children's books who was very popular c. 1880.
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Bircher (n.)

1961, member of the U.S. anti-communist John Birch Society, which was founded 1958 and named for John Birch, U.S. Baptist missionary and Army Air Forces captain killed by Chinese Communists shortly after the end of World War II, who is considered the first American casualty of the Cold War.

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Lethe 

mythical river of Hades (whose water when drunk caused forgetfulness of the past), in Homer, a place of oblivion in the lower world; from Greek lēthē, literally "forgetfulness, oblivion," from PIE root *ladh- "be hidden" (see latent). Related to lēthargos "forgetful" and cognate with Latin latere "to be hidden." Also the name of a personification of oblivion, a daughter of Eris. Related: Lethean.

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Charlie 

masc. proper name, also Charley, familiar form of Charles (also see -y (3)); 1965 in Vietnam War U.S. military slang for "Vietcong, Vietcong soldier," probably suggested by Victor Charlie, military communication code for V.C. (as abbreviation of Viet Cong), perhaps strengthened by World War II slang use of Charlie for Japanese soldiers, which itself is probably an extension of the 1930s derogatory application of Charlie to any Asian man, from fictional Chinese detective Charlie Chan.

Other applications include "a London night watchman" (1812); "a goatee beard" (1834, from portraits of King Charles I and his contemporaries); "a fox" (1857); in plural "a woman's breasts" (1874); "an infantryman's pack" (World War I); and "a white man" (Mr. Charlie), 1960, American English, from African-American vernacular.

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Everest (n.)
mountain between Nepal and Tibet, named 1865 for Sir George Everest (1790-1866), surveyor-general of India. The Tibetan name is Chomolangma "mother goddess of the world." Everest's surname is said in name-books to be a variant of Devereux, a Norman name, from Evereux/Evreux in France, which from a Celtic tribal name (Latin Eburovices) based on the Ebura (modern Eure) river.
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Thule 

region or island at northernmost part of the world, Old English, from Latin, from Greek Thyle "land six days' sail north of Britain" (Strabo, quoting a lost portion of a work by Polybius, itself based on a lost account of a voyage to the north by 4c. B.C.E. geographer Pytheas). The identity of the place and the source of the name have sparked much speculation; Polybius doubted the whole thing, and since Roman times the name has been used in a transferred sense of "extreme limits of travel" (Ultima Thule).

The barbarians showed us where the sun set. For it happened in those places that the night was extremely short, lasting only two or three hours; and the sun sunk under the horizon, after a short interval reappeared at his rising. [Pytheas]

The name was given to a trading post in Greenland in 1910, site of a U.S. air base in World War II.

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Emma 
fem. proper name, from German Emma, from Erma, contraction of Ermentrude or some similar name. With lower-case -e-, as British telephone and radio enunciation of -m- (to avoid confusion with -n-), attested by 1891, common in British soldier's jargon in World War I, for example ack emma "a.m.," pip emma "p.m." Compare ack (-a-), toc (-t-).
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