Etymology
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contest (v.)

c. 1600, "fight or do battle for, strive to win or hold," from French contester "dispute, oppose," from Latin contestari (litem) "to call to witness, bring action," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + testari "to bear witness," from testis "a witness," (see testament).

The notion of the Latin compound is "calling witnesses" as the first step in a legal combat. Meaning "make a subject of contention or dispute, enter into competition for" is from 1610s. Sense of "to argue in opposition, call into question" is from 1660s. Related: Contestable; contested; contesting.

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detestation (n.)

"extreme dislike, hatred, abhorrence, loathing," early 15c., detestacioun, from Old French detestation (14c.) and directly from Latin detestationem (nominative detestatio) "execration, detestation," noun of action from past-participle stem of detestari "to curse, execrate, abominate, express abhorrence for," literally "denounce with one's testimony," from de "from, down" (see de-) + testari "be a witness," from testis "witness" (see testament). 

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testate (adj.)
"having left a valid will," late 15c., from Latin testatus "public, manifest, published," past participle of testari "make a will, be witness to, declare" (see testament).
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testament (n.)
late 13c., "last will disposing of property," from Latin testamentum "a last will, publication of a will," from testari "make a will, be witness to," from testis "witness," from PIE *tri-st-i- "third person standing by," from root *tris- "three" (see three) on the notion of "third person, disinterested witness."

Use in reference to the two divisions of the Bible (early 14c.) is from Late Latin vetus testamentum and novum testamentum, loan-translations of Greek palaia diatheke and kaine diatheke. Late Latin testamentum in this case was a confusion of the two meanings of Greek diatheke, which meant both "covenant, dispensation" and "will, testament," and was used in the former sense in the account of the Last Supper (see testimony) but subsequently was interpreted as Christ's "last will."
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evidence (n.)
c. 1300, "appearance from which inferences may be drawn," from Old French evidence, from Late Latin evidentia "proof," in classical Latin "distinction, vivid presentation, clearness" in rhetoric, from stem of Latin evidens "obvious, apparent" (see evident).

Meaning "ground for belief" is from late 14c.; that of "obviousness" is from 1660s and tacks closely to the sense of evident. Legal senses are from c. 1500, when it began to oust witness. Also "one who furnishes testimony, witness" (1590s); hence turn (State's) evidence.
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contestation (n.)

1540s, "action of calling to witness," from Latin contestationem (nominative contestatio), "an attesting, testimony," noun of action from past-participle stem of contestari (see contest (v.)). Meaning "disputation, controversy" is from 1570s.

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cross-examine (n.)

"examine a witness (by the other side) to 'check' the effects of previous questioning," 1660s, from cross (adv.) in the sense "proceeding from an adverse party by way of reciprocal contest" + examine. Related: Cross-examination (1746).

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intestate (adj.)
late 14c., from Old French intestat (13c.) and directly from Latin intestatus "having made no will," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + testatus, past participle of testari "make a will, bear witness" (see testament). As a noun, "one who has not made out a will," from 1650s.
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recorder (n.1)

early 15c., recordour, "chief legal officer of a city," whose duty is to register writings or transactions, from Anglo-French recordour (early 14c.), Old French recordeor "witness; storyteller; minstrel," from Medieval Latin recordator, from Latin recordari "remember" (see record (v.)). The meaning "registering apparatus" is from 1873.

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testis (n.)
(plural testes), 1704, from Latin testis "testicle," usually regarded as a special application of testis "witness" (see testament), presumably because it "bears witness to male virility" [Barnhart]. Stories that trace the use of the Latin word to some supposed swearing-in ceremony are modern and groundless.

Compare Greek parastatai "testicles," from parastates "one that stands by;" and French slang témoins, literally "witnesses." But Buck thinks Greek parastatai "testicles" has been wrongly associated with the legal sense of parastates "supporter, defender" and suggests instead parastatai in the sense of twin "supporting pillars, props of a mast," etc. Or it might be a euphemistic use of the word in the sense "comrades." OED, meanwhile, points to Walde's suggestion of a connection between testis and testa "pot, shell, etc." (see tete).
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