Etymology
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fenestral (adj.)
late 14c., "pertaining to windows," from Old French fenestral, from fenestre "window," from Latin fenestra (see fenestration).
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transom (n.)

late 14c., transeyn "crossbeam spanning an opening, lintel," probably by dissimilation from Latin transtrum "crossbeam" (especially one spanning an opening), from trans "across, beyond" (from PIE root *tere- (2) "cross over, pass through, overcome") + instrumental suffix -trum. Meaning "small window over a door or other window" is first recorded 1844.

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vitrine (n.)
"glass show-case," 1880, from French vitrine, from vitre "glass, window-glass," from Latin vitrum "glass" (see vitreous).
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sash (n.2)

framed part of a window, into which the panes are fitted, 1680s, sashes, a mangled Englishing of French châssis "frame" of a window or door (see chassis).

The word was mistaken as a plural and further mangled by loss of the -s by 1704. Sash-door, one having panes of glass to admit light, is by 1726; sash-weight, attached by cords to either side of a sash to balance it and make it easier to raise and lower, is attested by 1737.

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staircase (n.)
also stair-case, 1620s, originally the enclosure of the stairs, from stair + case (n.2) in its sense "frame;" compare former window-case, door-case.
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defogger (n.)

"mechanism that clears condensed water vapor from the window of an automobile," by 1962, from agent noun from defog (v.) which is attested from 1945 (implied in defogging); see de- + fog.

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jamb (n.)
side-piece of an opening of a door, window, etc., early 14c., from Old French jambe "pier, side post of a door," originally "a leg, shank" (12c.), from Late Latin gamba "leg, (horse's) hock" (see gambol).
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fenestration (n.)

1870 in the anatomical sense, noun of action from Latin fenestrare, from fenestra "window, opening for light," a word perhaps from Etruscan (see defenestration). Meaning "arrangement of windows" as a design element in architecture is from 1846. Related: Fenestrated.

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shutter (n.)
1540s, "one who shuts" (see shut (v.)); meaning "movable wooden or iron screen for a window" is from 1680s. Photographic sense of "device for opening and closing the aperture of a lens" is from 1862.
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architrave (n.)
1560s as a feature of architectural columns; 1660s of window parts, from Italian architrave, from Latin archi- "beginning, origin" (see archon) + Italian trave "beam," from Latin trabem (nominative trabs) "beam, timber," from PIE root *treb- "dwelling" (see tavern).
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