c. 1300, clete "a wedge," from Old English *cleat "a lump," from West Germanic *klaut "firm lump" (source also of Middle Low German klot, klute, Middle Dutch cloot, Dutch kloot, Old High German kloz, German kloß "clod, dumpling").
In Middle English, a wedge of wood bolted to a spar, etc., to keep it from slipping (late 14c.). Meaning "thin metal plate fastened under a shoe, etc." (originally to preserve the sole) is from c. 1825, originally a dialect word. The athletic cleat, for gripping, is attested from 1904.
"wedge-shaped piece or bolt which fits into a hole used in fastening or tightening," 1640s, of uncertain origin; perhaps a shortened form of cotterel, a dialectal word for "cotter pin or bolt, bracket to hang a pot over a fire" (1560s), itself of uncertain origin. Cotter-pin is attested by 1849.
also crow-bar, "bar of iron with a wedge-shaped end," 1748, with bar (n.1), earlier simply crow (c. 1400); so called from its "beak" or from resemblance to a crow's foot; or possibly it is from crows, from Old French cros, plural of croc "hook."
late 12c., "scold, nag, rail," originally intransitive, from Old English cidan "to contend, quarrel, complain." Not found outside Old English (though Liberman says it is "probably related to OHG *kîdal 'wedge,'" with a sense evolution from "brandishing sticks" to "scold, reprove").
Originally a weak verb, later strong constructions are by influence of ride/rode, etc. Past tense, past participle can be chided or chid or even (past participle) chidden (Shakespeare used it); present participle is chiding.
also dove-tail, 1580s, in carpentry, "tenon cut in the form of a reverse wedge," the strongest of all fastenings, from dove (n.) + tail (n.). So called from resemblance of shape in the tenon or mortise of the joints to that of the bird's tail display. As a verb, "to unite by dovetail tenons," 1650s; figuratively "unite closely, as if by dovetails." Related: Dovetailed.
Old English spon "chip, sliver, shaving, splinter of wood," from Proto-Germanic *spe-nu- (source also of Old Norse spann, sponn "chip, splinter," Swedish spån "a wooden spoon," Old Frisian spon, Middle Dutch spaen, Dutch spaan, Old High German span, German Span "chip, splinter"), from PIE *spe- (2) "long, flat piece of wood" (source also of Greek spathe "spade," also possibly Greek sphen "wedge").
As the word for a type of eating utensil, c. 1300 in English (in Old English such a thing might be a metesticca), in this sense supposed to be from Old Norse sponn, which meant "spoon" as well as "chip, tile." The "eating utensil" sense is specific to Middle English and Scandinavian, though Middle Low German spon also meant "wooden spatula." To be born with a silver spoon in one's mouth is from at least 1719 (Goldsmith, 1765, has: "one man is born with a silver spoon in his mouth, and another with a wooden ladle").