"sharing, having a share or part in common with others," 1833, from participate + -ory. Participatory democracy is attested by 1965, a term from student protests and mass demonstrations, contrasted with representative democracy. The formulation of the idea, if not the phrase, seems to trace to U.S. progressive political writer Walter Lippmann (1889-1974).
also coigne, an archaic spelling of quoin (q.v.) the survival of which is due to Shakespeare's coign of vantage ("Macbeth" I.vi.), popularized by Sir Walter Scott; in this phrase it is properly "a projecting corner" (for observation).
expression of contempt, 1921 (in a newspaper cartoon), from Yiddish, from German pfui (attested in English from 1866); popularized by Walter Winchell. Phoo "vocalic gesture expressing contemptuous rejection" is recorded from 1640s. And compare go phut "come to nothing, come to a sudden end" (1906).
c. 1200, "to boast;" c. 1300, "to praise, commend highly," a word that survived in Scottish dialect and Sir Walter, from Middle English rosen "to brag, boast" (late 12c.), from Old Norse hrosa "to boast of, to praise." Related: Roosed; roosing. Also as a noun from c. 1200, "a boasting, bragging, vainglory."
"water fairy, water sprite," 1816 (introduced by Sir Walter Scott), from German Nixie, from Old High German nihhussa "water sprite," fem. of nihhus, from Proto-Germanic *nikwiz (source also of Old Norse nykr, Old English nicor "water spirit, water monster," also used to gloss hippopotamus), perhaps from PIE *neigw- "to wash" (source also of Sanskrit nenkti "washes," Greek nizo "I wash," Old Irish nigid "washes").
a general Gaelic word, especially among the Scottish Highlanders, for "an English person," 1771, Sassenaugh, literally "Saxon," from Gaelic Sasunnach, from Latin Saxones, from a Germanic source (such as Old English Seaxe "the Saxons;" see Saxon). The modern form of the word was established c. 1814 by Sir Walter Scott, from Scottish Sasunnoch, Irish Sasanach. The Welsh form is Seisnig.
county in Virginia, the name (also used in other places in U.S.) is that of Sir Walter Raleigh's lost colony in what is now North Carolina; probably an Algonquian name, recorded by 1584. It might be the same word as rawranock "shells used for money, kind of wampum," which is attested in English by 1624.