Etymology
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vesture (n.)
late 14c., "garments, clothes worn by a person at one time," from Anglo-French and Old French vesture, vesteure "dress, clothes, clothing," from Vulgar Latin *vestitura "vestments, clothing," from Latin vestivus, past participle of vestire "to clothe," from PIE *wes- (4) "to clothe" (see wear (v.)).
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vestal (adj.)

"chaste, pure, virgin," 1590s, originally (early 15c.) "belonging to or dedicated to Vesta," Roman goddess of hearth and home, from Latin vestalis. The noun is recorded from 1570s, short for Vestal virgin, one of four (later six) priestesses (Latin virgines Vestales) in charge of the sacred fire in the temple of Vesta in Rome. From 1580s in reference to any virgin or chaste woman.

They entered the service of the goddess at from six to ten years of age, their term of service lasting thirty years. They were then permitted to retire and to marry, but few did so, for, as vestals, they were treated with great honor, and had important public privileges. Their persons were inviolable, any offense against them being punished with death, and they were treated in all their relations with the highest distinction and reverence. A vestal who broke her vow of chastity was immured alive in an underground vault amid public mourning. There were very few such instances; in one of them, under Domitian, the chief of the vestals was put to death under a false charge trumped up by the emperor. [Century Dictionary]
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vestment (n.)
c. 1300, from Old French vestment (12c., Modern French vêtement), from Latin vestimentum "clothing, clothes," from vestire "to clothe," from PIE *wes- (4) "to clothe" (see wear (v.)). Related: Vestments; vestmental.
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vestibule (n.)
1620s, "a porch," later "antechamber, lobby" (1730), from French vestible, from Latin vestibulum "forecourt, entrance," of unknown origin. In reference to the ear part from 1728.
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vestige (n.)
c. 1600, from French vestige "a mark, trace, sign" (16c.), from Latin vestigium "footprint, trace," a word of unknown origin.
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vestry (n.)
mid-15c., probably from Anglo-French *vesterie, from Old French vestiaire "room for vestments, dressing room" (12c.), from Latin vestarium "wardrobe," noun use of neuter of vestiarius (adj.) "of clothes," from vestis "garment" (from PIE *wes- (2) "to clothe," extended form of root *eu- "to dress."). Often also a meeting room for the transaction of parish business, and retained in non-liturgical churches as the name of a separate room used for Sunday school, prayer meetings, etc., hence transferred secular use (as in vestryman, 1610s).
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vestigial (adj.)
1850, "like a mere trace of what has been," originally in biology, from vestige + -al (1).
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vestibular (adj.)
1819, in reference to the inner ear part, from vestibule + -ar.
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Vesta 
Roman goddess of hearth and home, late 14c., corresponding to, and perhaps cognate with, Greek Hestia, from hestia "hearth," from PIE root *wes- (3) "to dwell, stay" (source also of Sanskrit vasati "stays, dwells," Gothic wisan, Old English, Old High German wesan "to be"). As the name of a planetoid from 1807 (Olbers).
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conscience (n.)
Origin and meaning of conscience

c. 1200, "faculty of knowing what is right," originally especially to Christian ethics, later "awareness that the acts for which one feels responsible do or do not conform to one's ideal of right," later (late 14c.) more generally, "sense of fairness or justice, moral sense."

This is from Old French conscience "conscience, innermost thoughts, desires, intentions; feelings" (12c.) and directly from Latin conscientia "a joint knowledge of something, a knowing of a thing together with another person; consciousness, knowledge;" particularly, "knowledge within oneself, sense of right and wrong, a moral sense," abstract noun from conscientem (nominative consciens), present participle of conscire "be (mutually) aware; be conscious of wrong," in Late Latin "to know well," from assimilated form of com "with," or "thoroughly" (see con-) + scire "to know," probably originally "to separate one thing from another, to distinguish," related to scindere "to cut, divide," from PIE root *skei- "to cut, split" (source also of Greek skhizein "to split, rend, cleave").

The Latin word is probably a loan-translation of Greek syneidesis, literally "with-knowledge." The sense development is perhaps via "to know along with others" (what is right or wrong) to "to know right or wrong within oneself, know in one's own mind" (conscire sibi). Sometimes it was nativized in Old English/early Middle English as inwit. Russian also uses a loan-translation, so-vest, "conscience," literally "with-knowledge."

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