"different in kind, not alike, essentially different," late 14c., a specialized use of divers (q.v.), in some cases probably directly from Latin diversus "turned different ways." In Middle English it also could mean "disagreeable, unkind, hostile" (mid-14c.). The differentiation in spelling (perhaps by analogy with converse, traverse, etc.) and meaning prevailed after c. 1700. The sense of "including and promoting persons of previously under-represented minority identities" is from 1990s. Related: Diversely.
U.S. state, from Latinized form of Spanish montaña "mountain" (used in South America specifically of the forested region on the eastern slopes of the Andes), from Latin mont-, stem of mons (see mountain). The territorial name was proposed in 1864 by U.S. Rep. James H. Ashley of Ohio when it was created from Nebraska Territory, in reference to the Rocky Mountains, which however traverse only one end of it. Admitted as a state in 1889. Related: Montanan.
Old English tredan "to tread, step on, trample; traverse, pass over" (class V strong verb; past tense træd, past participle treden), from Proto-Germanic *tred- (source also of Old Saxon tredan, Old Frisian treda, Middle Dutch treden, Old High German tretan, German treten, Gothic trudan, Old Norse troða), from PIE *der- (1) "assumed base of roots meaning 'to run, walk, step'" [Watkins]. Related: Trod; treading. To tread water in swimming, "to move the feet and hands regularly up and down while keeping the body in an erect position in order to keep the head above the water" is attested by 1764.
Middle English rough (late 14c.), also rouhe, rouwe, roghe, rugh, etc., from Old English ruh, rug- "not smooth to the touch, coarse (of cloth); hairy, shaggy;" of hides, "undressed, untrimmed;" of ground, "uncultivated." This is from West Germanic *rukhwaz "shaggy, hairy, rough" (source also of Middle Dutch ruuch, Dutch ruig, Old High German ruher, German rauh), from Proto-Germanic *rukhaz, which is perhaps related to the source of Sanskrit ruksah "rough;" Latin ruere "to rush, fall violently, collapse," ruina "a collapse;" Lithuanian raukas "wrinkle," rukti "to shrink."
The original -gh- sound was guttural, as in Scottish loch. The form row was a regular variant from early 16c. and lingered in dialects. Of actions, "characterized by harshness or disparity," c. 1300; of land, terrain, late 15c. as "rugged, hard to traverse." Of stormy weather from mid-14c.; by late 14c. of turbulent seas, rude language, discordant sounds.
From mid-14c. as "crudely made;" c. 1600 as "rudely sufficient, not smooth or formed by art." Rough stone "undressed stone mortared together" is from mid-15c. Of writing or literary style, "lacking refinement, unpolished," 1530s. The sense of "approximate" is recorded from c. 1600.
Rough draft (or draught) is from 1690s. Rough-and-ready "rude and disorderly" is by 1832, from an earlier noun (1810), originally military; rough-and-tumble "not elaborately or carefully ordered" is from a style of free-fighting characterized by indiscriminate blows and falls (1810). Rough music "din produced by banging pots, pans, etc. for the purpose of annoying or punishing a neighbor" is by 1708. Rough-snout (c. 1300) was an old term for "a bearded face."