1831, "act of becoming specialized," noun of action from specialize. Biological sense from 1862. In science and scientific education, "a direction of time and energies in one particular channel to the exclusion of others," by 1880.
If you peruse the people in the news
The people that the magazines refer to
You'll find that they are naturally soignée
The special ones that all of us defer to
They've each a trait that seems to state first raters
That separates them from the small potaters
["Specialization," lyrics by Sammy Cahn]
mid-14c., "hazardous;" late 14c., "occurring by chance" (senses now obsolete), from Old French aventuros "chance, accidental, fortuitous;" of persons, "devoted to adventure" (Modern French aventureux), from aventure (see adventure (n.)). In English the sense of "rash, risk-taking" is from c. 1400, thence "daring, fond of adventure" (mid-15c.). Related: Adventurously; adventurousness.
The adventurous man incurs risks from love of the novel, the arduous, and the bold, trusting to escape through the use of his bodily and mental powers; he would measure himself against difficult things. When this spirit does not go so far as to deserve the name of rashness or foolhardiness, it is considered a manly trait. [Century Dictionary]
mid-14c., determinacioun, "decision, sentence in a suit at law, definite or authoritative judicial settlement," from Old French déterminacion "determination, settlement, definition" (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin determinationem (nominative determinatio) "conclusion, boundary," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin determinare "to enclose, bound, set limits to" (see determine).
Meaning "action of definitely ascertaining" is from 1670s; that of "result ascertained, a conclusion" is from 1560s. As "fixed direction toward a goal or terminal point," from 1650s, originally in physics or anatomy; metaphoric sense "fixation of will toward a goal, state of mental resolution with regard to something" is from 1680s; general sense of "quality of being resolute, fixedness of purpose as a character trait" is by 1822.
c. 1200, "one who betrays a trust or duty," from Old French traitor, traitre "traitor, villain, deceiver" (11c., Modern French traître), from Latin traditor "betrayer," literally "one who delivers," agent noun from stem of tradere "deliver, hand over," from trans- "over" (see trans-) + dare "to give" (from PIE root *do- "to give"). Originally usually with a suggestion of Judas Iscariot; especially of one false to his allegiance to a sovereign, government, or cause from late 15c. Compare treason, tradition.
1610s, "native or inhabitant of Malta;" 1797 (adj.) "of or pertaining to Malta, from Malta + -ese. Maltese cross is from 1754 (earlier Malta cross, 1650s), so called because it was worn by the Knights of Malta. Maltese cat is attested from 1830: any cat with fur completely or primarily gray or blue, supposedly a common trait among cats on the island, but the breeds that noted for this coloring are not associated with Malta. As a type of very small dog, known since ancient times in the Mediterranean, it is attested in English by 1803.
Strabo informs us, that "there is a town in Pachynus, a promontory of Sicily, (called Meleta,) from whence are transported many fine little dogs, called Melitae Canes. They were accounted the jewels of women; but now the said town is possessed by fishermen, and there is no such reckoning made of those tender little dogs, which are not bigger than common ferrets or weasels; yet are they not small in understanding, nor unstable in their love to men, for which cause they are also nourished tenderly for pleasure." [Capt. Thomas Brown, "Biographical Sketches and Authentic Anecdotes of Dogs," Edinburgh, 1829]