Etymology
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millenarian (n.)

1670s, "one who believes in the coming of the (Christian) millennium" (by 1550s in Latin plural form millenarii), from Latin millenarius "containing a thousand," from millenia "a thousand each," from mille "thousand" (see million). With -ian. As an adjective, "pertaining to the (Christian) millennium," from 1630s.

The apparent inconsistency in spelling (-n-, -nn-) results from the fact that millenarian, like millenary, does not contain the stem of the Latin annus year, which is present in millennium .... [Fowler]
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milfoil (n.)

"yarrow," a composite herb, mid-13c., from Old French milfoil, from Latin millefolium, literally "thousand leaf," so called from the abundance of its leaves; from mille "thousand" (see million) + folium "leaf" (from PIE root *bhel- (3) "to thrive, bloom").

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grand (n.)
"thousand dollars," 1915, American English underworld slang, from grand (adj.).
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mil (n.)

1721, in per mil "per thousand," from Latin mille "thousand" (see million); compare percent. As a unit of length for diameter of wire (equal to .001 of an inch) it is attested from 1891; as a unit of angular measure it is recorded by 1907.

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kilometer (n.)
"one thousand meters," 1810, from French kilomètre (1795); see kilo- + meter (n.2). Related: Kilometric.
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trillion 
1680s, from French trillion, from Italian trilione; see tri- + million. In the U.S., the fourth power of a thousand (one thousand billion, 1 followed by 12 zeroes); in Great Britain, the third power of a million (one million billion, 1 followed by 18 zeroes), which is the original sense. Compare billion.
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myriad (n.)

1550s, "the number of 10,000," also "an indefinitely great number," from French myriade and directly from Late Latin myrias (genitive myriadis) "ten thousand," from Greek myrias (genitive myriados) "a number of ten thousand; countless numbers," from myrios (plural myrioi) "innumerable, countless, infinite; boundless," as a definite number, "ten thousand" ("the greatest number in Greek expressed by one word," Liddell & Scott say), of unknown origin; perhaps from PIE *meue- "abundant" (source also of Hittite muri- "cluster of grapes," Latin muto "penis," Middle Irish moth "penis"). Beekes offers "no etymology." The numerically specific use is usually in translations from Greek or Latin.

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kilogram (n.)
"one thousand grams," standard of mass in the metric system, 1797, from French kilogramme (1795); see kilo- + gram.
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chiliasm (n.)

"the doctrine of the millennium (suggested by Revelation xx), the theological opinion that Christ and the saints will reign visibly and corporeally on earth for 1,000 years before the final struggle between good and evil," c. 1600, from Latinized form of Greek khiliasmos, from khilias, from khilioi "a thousand, the number 1,000," which is probably from a PIE *gheslo-, source also of Sanskrit sahasra- "thousand" and perhaps also Latin mille, but the exact original sense of the root is unclear. Related: Chiliast; chiliastic.

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millipede (n.)

also millepede, type of many-legged hard-shelled arthropod, c. 1600, from Latin millepeda "wood louse," a type of crawling, insect-like arthropod, from mille "thousand" (see million) + pes (genitive pedis) "foot," from PIE root *ped- "foot." Probably a loan-translation of Greek khiliopous. The native name is thousand-legs. The number of legs is far from 1,000, though they are about twice as numerous as those of the centipede, but unlike some centipedes the millipede is quite harmless.

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